måndag 26 april 2010

Schrödingers cat. Dead and alive, body and mind.

The cat is in superposition, both dead and alive? A really good explination here of this complex problem.

Life is quantum mechanical? More and more evidence is accumulating. In a sense it would be the most natural explanation for our experiencies, the mind-body problem. It would even explain death as phenomen. In everyday life there are so many questions that would belong to our quantum being mirror. Perceptions, muscle work, nerve functioning, cell membrane functionings, chromosome functions, everything else but not brain (cortex?). In the ancient medicine brain was not considered as important at all, and maybe there is a point. Our brain is so very overestimated.

The acupuncture meridians make us living?, says Rakovic.
The acupuncture system is the only macroscopic quantum system in our body (while brain still seems not to be). This is the reason that consciousness is related to its MW ultralow-frequency-modulated EM field of the acupuncture system.

What is life?
Life is an ability to be deformed, stressed, and still be able to take back the former shape and function. Life is sensitiveness, perhaps most of all, and an ability to react on the stress. Life is growing, learning, accumulation of stress in memory, and an capacity to create new meaning from nonsense noise, through an ability to recognize patterns and codes (information).

If we compare to a piece of viscoelastic gel with a communicative system, what is the main difference? Both can be deformed, stressed, both can grow, both can perhaps learn something if the accumulation of energy is a 'memory'. But the gel cannot create something new out of old structures? The creeping can perhaps be seen as something new? The inherent self-organization? No, it is seen in viruses, proteins, etc. The replication? Can a replication be non-living? I think so, if the chrystallization is taken for a simple replication (many would not agree in this).

The main difference is the sensitivity for stress, and the fast relaxation, but still with a natural inertia inherent to the system (dissipative structure), creating a sence of coherence, consciousness, self and time. The coherence favour survival and it can extend also outside the organism to a superorganism, and a community. The only real big difference is the inertia and the delayed dissipation, together with superconduction minimized dissipation. 'I can decide, I feel myself a creator'. Time and consciousness belongs together very tightly. Time is measured in frequencies of dissipation? In a sence time is dissipation.

So, we have one system for creating dissipation (a string) and one for no dissipation (the bullet) at the same time. A string, for the robustness and criticality, a bullet for the possibilities and uncertainity, matter and wave. Is the Schrödinger cat both dead and alive at the same time? Are we real quantum mechanical beings?

The creation of complex superpositions in harmonic systems (such as the motional state of trapped ions, microwave resonators or optical cavities) has presented a significant challenge because it cannot be achieved with classical control signals here So, are the control then quantal?

Mae Wan Ho writes:
The vital energy, qi, of traditional Chinese medicine corresponds to coherent energy in living organisms, which is stored everywhere over the entire range of space-times. Consequently any subtle influence arising anywhere will propagate throughout the system and become amplified into global effects. In other words, the system, by virtue of being full of coherent energy, will be ultra-sensitive to very weak signals; and this may be the basis of all forms of subtle energy medicine including acupuncture.
The energy is the string, the coherence is the bullet?

She continues:
...instantaneous, noiseless intercommunication that enables the organism to function as a perfectly coordinated whole because it is liquid crystalline, containing 70% by weight of water, permeates throughout the connective tissues and into the interior of every single cell. The water molecules are aligned in ordered layers along the extensive surfaces of macromolecules and are an integral part of the liquid crystalline continuum. It makes the living matrix highly responsive to changes in pressure, temperature, pH, and electrical polarization. The ordered layers of water in the matrix also support a special kind of 'jump conduction' of protons (positive ion) that is much faster than nerve conduction and faster than ordinary electrical conduction through wires.
The macromolecules are the string, the coherent water (supraconduction?) the bullet.

Ho and Knight proposed as one of the first that the dynamically ordered layers of water molecules (bullet) associated with the oriented collagen fibres in the connective tissues (string) correspond to the acupuncture meridians, while acupuncture points correspond to gaps or junctions between the meridians (collagen fibres or connective tissue bundles).

Jumping charge of protons, that can be interpreted as magnetic holes? Are the charge induced from outside? These 'waves of holes' has a meaning for the DC-electricity, as well as 'waves of tops'; the electrons. (In spintronics even 'waves of spin' happen.)

The network effect of the tunneling between the 'patterns' is a stochastic process, the well-known 'random walk' process. The tunneling can interfere with the diff erent stochastic processes, and are eg. an activation process, and relaxing the inertia (velocity/time).

Acupuncture meridians have a double oscillating function.
Dejan Rakovic 2001:
Biophysical bases for acupunture based medicine is its resonance microwave/ultralowfrequency (MW/ULF) electromagnetic/ionic nature, as well as the quantum holographic 'electro-optical' neural-network-like-function of the acupuncture system, that is psychosomatically disordered, at the same time as the non-treshold gap-junction based self-assembling of the acupuncture system explains the extreme sensitivity on external MW/ULF EM fields.
The ionic acupuncture currents are both MW and ULF, and the longer, latter modulates MW, exactly as the windows in tissue interactions with weak EM fields. The resonance ULF (about 4 Hz) stimulate the endorphin mechanism, and the resonant MW (50 - 80 GHz) is efficient even in serious diseases. Earlier we saw that the meridians was capable to accumulate there resonant frequencies in the alpha region.

Rakovic cont.:
Acupuncture system is a dynamic structure differentiated at the locations of maxima loci of 3-D standing waves, formed as a result of coherent MW-reflexive Fröhlich excitations (up to about 100 GHz from 50 - 70 GHz) of molecular subunits in the cell membranes, proteins, microtubulis, etc. Differentiation of gap junctions with a higher density in acupuncture points (through which an evolutionary older type of inter-cell communications is achieved, including acupuncture, whose conductivity can be modulated by intra-cell pH-factor, Ca2+-ions, neurotransmitters and second messengers - and even by voltage), are slightly sensitive to voltage.
These gap junctions may function together as a 'superorganism-like' 'amplifying' junctions. Kind of a 'highway' or a zone.

Two different functions for nerve nets.
Neural and other associative nets can be seen as a deterministic system which assumes that the information processing (the dynamics) of the neural nets bears the classic-physical reality, determinism and locality. Or they can be modelled quantum-mechanically (solitonic). Or both. As the classic-physical systems, and with the quantum-mechanical corrections to their deterministic dynamics, coming from the well-known e ffect of quantum-mechanical tunnelling. It is the border territory between quantum world and classical world.

Quantum-mechanical tunneling in associative neural networks, describes the meridians as kind of 'random walk structures', requiring no energy exchange.
Being the relatively stable minima of the 'configuration-energy' space of the networks, the 'patterns' represent the macroscopically distinguishable states of the neural nets. Therefore, the tunneling represents a macroscopic quantum e ffect, but with some special characteristics. Particularly, we investigate the tunneling between the minima of approximately equal depth, thus requiring no energy exchange. If there are at least a few such minima, the tunneling represents a sort of the 'random walk' process, which implies the quantum fluctuations in the system, and therefore 'malfunctioning' in the information processing of the nets. Due to the finite number of the minima, the 'random walk' reduces to a dynamics. the quantum fluctuations due to the quantum-mechanical tunneling can be 'minimized' if the 'pattern'-formation is such that there are mutually 'distant' groups of the 'patterns', thus providing the 'zone' structure of the 'pattern' formation.

The black ball represents the 'particle' oscillating with a frequency around the bottom of the well. The presented 'con guration energy (q − V )' surface represents the 'patterns' {welldefi ned, macroscopically distinguishable physical states of the nets. Entropy represents a measure of ignorance about the physical state of the system. The density matrix is the knowledge, which represent the mutually distinguishable (i.e., orthogonal) states. That is, entropy is a measure of the classical indeterminism: a system is in a de finite state, but the state is not known with certainty, and increase of entropy coincides with the loss of the informations concerning the physical state of the system. In what state the system can be found {probabilistically) is measured by entropy (von Neumans entropy). The zones and wells need not to follow each other.

The healthy state.
Nature wants to be robust by 'minimizing' the quantum fluctuations due to the tunnelling. No disturbing jumps that distort the cell machinery! But the big number of the minima and their high 'density' or zones are necessary for enhancing the memory capabilities and conscious experience of the nets. The 'zone' structure is mutually distant groups of not-very-numerous densely packed minima, between which the information can jump.

Healthy state might be considered as an absolute minimum (ground state) of the non-local self-consistent macroscopic quantum potential of the organism (energy potential between the max and min degrees of freedom, stable and unstable conditions, in Popps terms); disorders corresponding to higher minima of the spatio-temporal changeable potential hypersurface in energy configuration (stressed condition) explains the higher sensory responses of the more excited acupuncture system. This is very close to an associative neural network and to pattern recognition as convergence of the neural networks to the bottoms of the potential hypersurface, being the attractors of neural networks memory patterns.

There are the two diff erent levels of the influence of the environment.
A. The e ffect of decoherence (decay), which destroys the quantummechanical coherence on a very short time scale. Quantum states inevitably decay with time into a probabilistic mixture of classical states.
B. The influence of the environment on the (approximately) deterministic behavior of the system {which has previously 'survived' the decoherence).

A mechanical non-living system is cooled (superconduction) to its quantum ground state, where all classical noise is eliminated. But in living systems noise cannot be eliminated.

Lubos also points out an important factor:
Von Neumann and Wigner actually argued that everything – including the macroscopic objects – evolves according to the Schrödinger equation, and the “collapse” is only done when you actually want to observe something which requires consciousness. Alternatively, you may imagine that even other people evolve into strange linear superpositions and it is just you who has the right to make the wavefunction collapse.

This has led to the anthrophic principle, evidently wrong, but in essence this statement is right. It is consciousness that collapse the random wave. This has been seen in PSI-research so many times.

September 10, 2009, a discussion on the Physics arXiv Blog
How to Create Quantum Superpositions of Living Things. Scientists try to create a quantum superposition of a living thing, such as a virus. The experiment will first involve storing a virus in a vacuum and then cooling it to its quantum mechanical ground state in a microcavity. Zapping the virus with a laser then leaves it in a superposition of the ground state and an excited one.

What could lead to the quantum ground state of a virus? The virus have the structure for it. Maybe it is because the host has a disorganized 'field' that viruses can attack?

But seen in the light of above Nature has not gone this path. In Nature it is the surroundings and the organism that do the constraints. The object is allowed to oscillate and have 'noise'.

The necessity for application of Microwave Resonance Therapy (MRT) upon acupuncture points was discovered only in the early 1980's (Sit'ko et al in Kiev) as appearance of sharply-resonant characteristic eigenfrequencies of human organism - which successfully stimulated development of the second generation of coherent, the third generation of noise spectrum MW generators, and finally fourth generation of noise spectrum Controlled Energy Materials (CEM) MW generators with changeable therapeutic oscillators in mid-2000's. The coherent spectrum MW generators with manually changeable frequency (from 52 to 70 GHz) are far less suitable in practice, because of much longer seeking of the resonant frequency, dependent on individual properties of the organism and the subjective state of the patient, which can result in therapeutic mistakes and overdosing. On the other hand, the noise spectrum MW generators enable simultaneous excitation of all possibly therapeutic resonance MW frequencies (52-78 GHz), and an organism continuously resonantly responds to currently appropriate (and changeable during therapy) frequency. Finally, the noise spectrum CEM MW generators with changeable therapeutic oscillators provide unique possibility to initially record an biologically-active-zone (BAZ) MW spectrum (biologically resonant in both frequency and intensity) by BAZ-influenced changeable oscillator, and subsequently to re-emit the BAZ MW spectrum by the oscillator in this very zone - thus enabling resonant shallowing of the acupuncture disordered state in favor of deepening of the attracting acupuncture healthy state.

By affecting the appropriate acupuncture points by MRT generators, remarkable clinical results of the treatment are being achieved in the prevention and therapy of stress, as well as in many psychosomatic disorders (cardiovascular, respiratory, gastro-intestinal, nefro-urologic, endocrine, gynecological, neurological, psychiatric, dermatological, orthopedic and traumatologic, ophthalmologic, ORL, stomatologic, pediatric, addictions ...) - with average efficiency of 82% in chronic and up to 100% in acute diseases, tested on population of several millions of patients of different pathologies in several thousands of MRT cabinets in Ukraine and Russia.

MRT is practical realization of the Prigogine theory of selforganization of living systems. In that context an explanation for efficiency of the MRT, as noninvasive non-pharmacological medical treatment, should be sought. So, some disorders in the organism give rise to deformation in the standing wave structure of electrical field of the organism in the MW region, which influences corresponding changes in the spatial structure of the acupuncture system, and consequently its resonant frequencies, resulting in some disease; during the therapy, applying the MW sound at corresponding acupuncture point the excited acupuncture system of the patient is relaxing to the previous healthy condition, while reaching normal resonant frequencies responses of its meridians upon the wide spectrum MW source - and following to physiological mechanisms of the acupuncture regulation the organism biochemically overcomes the disease.

Trapping light.
Mae Wan Ho: Organisms are thick with spontaneous activities at every level (100000/min?), right down to the molecules, and the molecules are dancing, even when the organisms sit still. The images obtained give direct evidence of the remarkable coherence (oneness) of living organisms. 1, 2, 3.

The macromolecules, associated with lots of water, are in a dynamic liquid crystalline state, where all the molecules are macroscopically aligned to form a continuum that links up the whole body, permeating throughout the connective tissues, the extracellular matrix, and into the interior of every single cell. And all the molecules, including the water, are moving coherent ly together as a whole.

The organism is creating and recreating herself afresh with each passing moment, recoding and rewriting the genes in her cells in an intricate dance of life that enables the organism to survive and thrive. The dance is written as it is performed; every movement is new, as it is shaped by what has gone before. The organism never ceases to experience its environment and registering its experience for future reference. The coordination required for simultaneous multiple tasks and for performing the most extraordinary feats both depend on a special state of being whole, the ideal description for which is “quantum coherence”. Quantum coherence is a paradoxical state that maximises both local freedom and global cohesion.

The organism is, in the ideal, a quantum superposition of coherent activities over all space-times, constituting a pure coherent state towards which the system tends to return on being perturbed.

An intuitive picture of the quantum coherent organism is a perfect life cycle coupled to energy (and material) flow. The perfect life cycle represents perpetual return and renewal. It is a domain of coherent energy storage that accumulates no waste or entropy within, because it mobilises energy most efficiently and rapidly to grow and develop and reproduce. Not only does it not accumulate entropy, but the waste or entropy exported outside is also minimised.

To be quantum coherent above all, is to be most spontaneous and free.

The wave function that describes the system is also a superposition of all possibilities. It implies that the future is entirely open, and the potentials infinite. Quantum coherence is the prerequisite for conscious experience
It is why each and every one of us thinks of ourselves as “I” in the singular even though we are a multiplicity of organs, tissues and cells, and astronomical numbers of molecules. We would have a wave function that evolves, constantly informing the whole of our being, never ceasing to entangle other quantum entities, transforming itself in the process to mobilize energy most rapidly and efficiently, to intercommunicate nonlocally and instantaneously, transcending the usual separations of space and time. That’s why a ‘being’ can be in two places at the same time and different beings far, far apart can exchange information instantaneously.
- No time, no 'meter', all information in the Universe, every quantum jump is saved and the Universe is recreated (for the 'I') all the time with every jump.

Quantum information processors exploit the quantum features of superposition and entanglement for applications not possible in classical devices.

Friedman et al. go some way to answering this fundamental question by confirming that quantum superposition works as well in the macroscopic world of superconducting rings as it does in the microscopic world of photons, electrons and atoms. A macroscopic system could behave quantum mechanically if it was suitably decoupled from its environment, as in a SQUID. The question was whether a 'persistent' electric current in the ring would decay in a quantum-mechanical way, which has been shown to happen by quantum tunnelling.

At the midpoint of the figure, the measured tunnel splitting energy between the two states. The particle is creating a wave too. From Friedman et al.

Gianni Blatter in Schrödinger's cat is now fat, 2000:
If a macroscopic system can decay by quantum tunnelling, the next question to ask is whether it could also oscillate back and forth between two states. would the macroscopic state tunnel back and forth sequentially, forgetting about its quantum-mechanical make-up after each hop, or would it oscillate coherently, preserving its quantum state throughout the hops? The second process goes under the name of 'macroscopic quantum coherence' and has been something of a holy grail in this field since the 1980s — it is the coherent superposition between the two current states in the ring that corresponds to the indeterminate state of Schrödinger's dead-and-alive cat. Quantum theory predicts that if such a system is strongly coupled to the environment, it remains localized in one state and so behaves classically. At low coupling, the system follows damped, coherent oscillations between the states, with the damping rate vanishing as the coupling to the environment goes to zero (death?). This quantum mixing of the two states leads to a so-called coherence gap separating the energies of the superposition states.

The Scrödinger cat is alive because of its entanglement with the environment. It is dead because it detaches from environment. We know that, everyone knows that.

The true 'symmetric state' (the bullet) is quantal? The energy is the string?

Can living things be quantal?
This subject has been discussed extensively on the web this month. Here a video. BBC News, a photonic cluster, a tiny resonating strip of metal – only 60 micrometres long, but big enough to be seen without a microscope – can both oscillate and not oscillate at the same time, NewScientist, etc.

The coherence gap. Blatter:
One explanation for this coherence gap is as follows. Consider a particle trapped in a potential well with two minima (a double-well potential). As the particle tunnels between the two wells, it lowers its kinetic energy because of the spreading of its wavefunction over both wells. As a result, the new mixed ground state is shifted down with respect to the energy of the individual wells. This 'symmetrical' state always comes with an 'antisymmetric' partner state, which is slightly higher in energy. In fact, this excited state comes to lie at an energy above the original well energy, resulting in an excitation gap of 2*the energylevel. This phenomenon is well known in chemistry, where the two mixed or superposition states correspond to the bonding and antibonding states of a diatomic molecule.
This probability peaks when the microwave frequency matches up with the two superposition states, allowing them to identify a coherence gap. Then they 'surf the wave'.

The challenge in future experiments will be to track the appearance of this coherence gap when probing lower-energy (semiclassical) states deeper in the well. Another possibility would be to make the coherence gap vanish by introducing artificial decoherence into the system, for example by coupling the SQUID to a metallic reservoir.

The coupled qubit-resonator experiment.
Proving that all objects, whatever their size, obeys the same rules has long been a goal of physicists. But with quantum mechanics it is no trivial matter: the larger an object, the more easily its fragile quantum state is destroyed by the disruptive influence of the world around it. O'Connell's experiments required delicate control and a temperature of just 25 millikelvin to measure the state in the few nanoseconds before it was broken down by disruptive influences from outside.

"It was a close call, but sufficient to see a first quantum signature" "The qubit acts as a bridge between the microscopic and the macroscopic worlds," says O'Connell. By tuning the frequency at which the qubit cycled between its two states to match the resonant frequency of the metallic strip, the qubit's quantum state could be transferred to the resonator at will.the resonator was sometimes in its non-oscillating ground state and sometimes in an oscillating "excited" state. The number of times it was measured to be in each state followed the probabilistic rules of quantum mechanics.now the spooky influence of quantum physics on visible objects has been proved, can we expect to be putting an object as large as a real child's swing into an indeterminate quantum state any time soon? O'Connell thinks so. "I'd say in the near future – in the next 20 years."

Markus Aspelmeyer
Researchers have long wanted to be able to control macroscopic mechanical objects in their smallest possible state of motion. Success in achieving that goal heralds a new generation of quantum experiments.

Dead silence — and then roaring applause. I still remember that brief moment that revealed the astonishment of everyone in the audience

Preparation and detection of a mechanical resonator near the ground state of motion.
Rocheleau et al. 2010: Cold, macroscopic mechanical systems are expected to behave contrary to our usual classical understanding of reality; the most striking and counterintuitive predictions involve the existence of states in which the mechanical system is located in two places simultaneously. Various schemes have been proposed to generate and detect such states, and all require starting from mechanical states that are close to the lowest energy eigenstate, the mechanical ground state. Here we report the cooling of the motion of a radio-frequency nanomechanical resonator by parametric coupling to a driven, microwave-frequency superconducting resonator. Starting from a thermal occupation of 480 quanta, we have observed occupation factors as low as 3.8 +/- 1.3 and expect the mechanical resonator to be found with probability 0.21 in the quantum ground state of motion. Further cooling is limited by random excitation of the microwave resonator and heating of the dissipative mechanical bath. This level of cooling is expected to make possible a series of fundamental quantum mechanical observations including direct measurement of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and quantum entanglement with qubits. A widely applicable model of weakly but otherwise arbitrarily coupled two-level systems, and use quantum gate design techniques to derive a simple and intuitive CNOT construction, see Quantum logic with weakly coupled qubits.

Islands of life?
"There is this question of where the dividing line is between the quantum world and the classical world we know"

There is a problem of scaling. Pitkänen suggested a solution with 'Life as islands' in a mathemathical concept.

Quantum interference effects can, in theory, lead to the emergence of new particles carrying exotic quantum numbers at a critical point.

Quantum systems with fluctuating spacetime field configurations map onto field theories in one extra dimension.

Several thermodynamic properties are shown to exhibit logarithmic corrections to scaling. In the renormalization group theory of phase transitions, such logarithmic corrections arise only in very special cases.

It is not easy to drive experimental systems through a phase transition at T=0 without impurities, doping, or magnetic fields, each of which brings in additional features. Perhaps organic molecular crystals, which are very sensitive to pressure, are the most promising candidates.

Feynman put it best: "If you think you understand quantum mechanics, you don't understand quantum mechanics"

Gianni Blatter, 2000: Schrödinger's cat is now fat. Nature 406, 25-26(6 July 2000). doi:10.1038/35017670 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v406/n6791/full/406025a0.html

M. Dugic and D. Rakovic,: Quantum-mechanical tunneling in associative neural networks. Eur. Phys. J. B 13, 781{790 (2000). http://www.dejanrakovicfound.org/papers/2000-EUR-Phys-J-B.pdf

Friedman, J. R. , Patel, V. , Chen, W. , Tolpygo, S. K. & Lukens, J. E. Quantum superposition of distinct macroscopic states. Nature 406, 43– 46 (2000). doi:10.1038/35017505 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v406/n6791/full/406025a0.html#B2

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, Radoslaw C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, Erik Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, John M. Martinis & A. N. Cleland. Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator. Nature 464, 697-703(1 April 2010) doi:10.1038/nature08967 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7289/full/nature08967.html NPR

D. Raković, "Acupuncture-based biophysical frontiers of complementary medicine", Proc. 23rd Ann. Int. Conf. IEEE/EMBS, Istanbul, Turkey (2001). http://www.dejanrakovicfound.org/papers/2001-IEEE-MBE-TURKEY.pdf

D. Raković, "Quantum medicine: Phenomenology and quantum-holographic implications", Med Data Rev, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 71-73 (2009). http://www.dejanrakovicfound.org/papers/2009-MED-DATA-REV.pdf

D. Raković, M. Dugić, and M.M. Ćirković, "Macroscopic quantum effects in biophysics and consciousness", NeuroQuantology (www.NeuroQuantology.5u.com) Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 237-262 (2004). http://www.dejanrakovicfound.org/papers/2004-NEUROQUANTOLOGY.pdf

Dejan Rakoviv, 2009: QUANTUM MEDICINE: PHENOMENOLOGY AND QUANTUM-HOLOGRAPHIC IMPLICATIONS. Medical review UDC: 616. http://www.dejanrakovicfound.org/papers/2009-MED-DATA-REV.pdf

Dejan Rakovic, 2003: THINKING AND LANGUAGE: EEG MATURATION AND MODEL OF CONTEXTUAL LANGUAGE LEARNING. Speech and Language 2003, IEFPG, Belgrade. http://www.dejanrakovicfound.org/papers/2003-IEFPG.pdf

Wae Wan Ho:

Rajiv R. P. Singh, 2010: Does quantum mechanics play a role in critical phenomena? Physics 3, 35 (2010) DOI: 10.1103/Physics.3.35 http://physics.aps.org/articles/v3/35

H. Wang, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, A. D. O’Connell, D. Sank, M. Weides, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland and John M. Martinis, 2009: Decoherence Dynamics of Complex Photon States in a Superconducting Circuit. arXiv:0909.4585v1

måndag 12 april 2010

Stress and relax. The extracellular matrix. Brain modelling VIII b.

Living bodies cannot store energy as heat. They are no real thermodynamical things, but they will still have to store the energy in other ways, and the only possible solution is to store it as bondings, organization, coherence (degrees of freedom is collapsed). Then the priority is in stable bondings and things that can ineract and give off their energy at demand. An energy store, more longlasting than the ATP-production, that also is an accommodation and relaxation. Also movement can have a relaxating effect (short time) in this sense, although the tension (especially longterm) often increase the energy. The metabolic energy balance between sugars and lipids are well known. The lipids for vertebrates are very often stored as saturated lipids, with very few C=C bondings. The degree of carbon double bondings is one measure of stable energy storage, also many body systems; another is oxygen, which is stable in reduced form, with no magnetic interference. Water and its chrystal structure, chiral molecules, metal ions etc. are also important. Polarized light and sound even.

Water is extremely important and a more complete molecular description of the liquid and solid phases of water, including an accurate universal force field,is described in 'Water clusters: Untangling the mysteries of the liquid, one molecule at a time'. It is clear that the hydrogen bond network and its fluctuations and rearrangement dynamics determine the properties of water.

The water dimer exhibits three distinct low barrier quantum tunneling pathways that rearrange the hydrogen bonding pattern. Acceptor switching (AS), having the lowest barrier of all tunneling motions estimated at 157 cm−1 by VRT(ASP-W), is the most facile tunneling motion. This tunneling pathway exchanges the two protons in the hydrogen bond acceptor monomer. After Keutsch & Saykally 2001.

The water trimer is a much more rigid structure than the dimer, bound by three strained H-bonds. It has a chiral cyclic equilibrium structure. There is also a water tetramer that is highly symmetric and requires highly concerted tunneling motions and limits the number of degenerate minima that can be connected on the intermolecular potential surface via feasible tunneling motions to two. The water pentamer is chiral, and the hexamer has a cage structure with the oxygens forming a distorted octahedron. A cyclic hexamer form has also been seen. A vibration-rotation-tunneling band is indicated by a chiral six-membered ring structure with rapid quantum tunneling occurring between the enantiomers. The observed vibration involves torsional motion of the water subunits about each hydrogen bond axis.

The interpretation of recent dielectric relaxation measurements has even suggested that water molecules making only two hydrogen bonds might be of special importance for bulk dynamics. Excitation induces hydrogen bond breaking, and hydrogen bonds are extremely important in biology (dissociation energy).

Impacts on photosynthetic PSI cyclic electron transport rates could account for observed variability in quantum yields for oxygen evolution and some variability in quantum yields for carbon fixation. Similarly, enzymatic processes associated with organic carbon synthesis appeared to be variably dependent on spectral growth irradiances and contributing to the observed variability in quantum yields for carbon fixation.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important players in mediating quantum dot (QD)-induced cellular damage and apoptosis. The mechanism involves QD generation of ROS in the extracellular environment and intracellularly. These ROS can cause plasma membrane damage and intracellular organelle damage; mitochondria are the first to be affected in metabolism (decreased cytochrom c levels), and they appear to be the most sensitive organelles. Different surface molecules provide a different degree of protection, and they act as a barrier to oxygen, protons, or hole traps. Oxidative stress is also an important factor in ageing. Exessive NO is an important signalling mediator behind neurological disorders, but oxidative functions of ROS maybe also can be seen as an energy pool, as instance in the nerve system.

Noise, information and stress .
The electromagnetic interference, or noise, comes from our own body, but also from environment (nature and nurture), and make up the perceptions too. The excess is experienced as stress, the part that cannot be entangled with anything, that has no meaning. Without entanglement it gives dissipation and maybe de-entanglement (negative negentropy). Coherent storage have a higher priority, also networks, and highest of all the fractal and topological networks seen in maps ('homunculus' - type, but I prefer to talk of body maps in a topological way) that can interfere with each other, as mirror images, also at long distances. This is very often seen in medicine (referred pain). Take a heart attach as example. It engages the whole body, and the surroundings too. Take a fobia attack, a stroke, even common flue. It is the whole body that are sick. In medicine we talk of system diseases, or syndromas.

The most coherent of all is the whole, synergetic (in time) body that interfere with the surroundings and minimize the dissipation that will follow. That is true biological holism, a true maximation of the negentropy. The resistance/dissipation is minimized. The same as could be seen in quantum tunnelling in water. The fight is minimized. How could we even think that Darwin was right? Or he is partly right. The fight is so unpleasant that we do anything to avoid it. Even change the species preferences, the niches, if needed.

A way to minimize the resistance is to build networks. And a very important network is the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this way biological systems are capable to join termodynamic entropy and informational entropy as a stress-relaxing mechanism. This means growing, and death. I see I will have to look at the entropy aspect closer in later postings.

Synergetism is a minimized dissipation Synergies are produced (as an emergent charachter?) when many elements or parts combine to produce distinctive/differently new 'wholes'. Indeed, complex living systems represent a multi-leveled, multi-faceted hierarchy of synergistic effects. Synergism is about self-organizing charachters and life is creating itself, also reproducing itself, as a consequence of inherent properties in the energy landscape. Erwin Schrödinger’s legendary book “What is Life?” (1945) said the most important physical property of life was its thermodynamic foundation. Living systems are distinctive in that they create thermodynamic order, is a multi-level phenomenon and new properties and even new principles arise at higher levels of “agglomeration” and organization. Life evolve. Such are its dynamic goal-directedness, purpose and survival strategies; partially 'independent' of other physical systems. Living systems have an internally-defined teleology, kind of a 'black box', can do conscious choice-making decisions to adapt and diminish the dissipation. The most advanced is the transcendent cultural achievements of humankind. Corning talks of the Synergism Hypothesis, in effect an 'bioeconomic' theory of complexity. Its result is cooperation and sociability, as opposed to competition in Darwins evolution. Co-operative/symbiotic processes involve the environment. Operative processes are controlling and regulating processes. Control isn't always endogenic. Large-scale, sophisticated cooperative efforts keep bacterial colonys together, direct the motor output of fish stims, synchronize the brain waves in jazz musicians, coordinate the metabolic activities in groups etc. Specialization (negentropy) facilitates growth. Also learning is growth. Energy is directed towards growth and a more effecient machinery (work better together than alone). Can this be a relation of dissipation (energy demand) and co-operation (energy 'production' or 'saving'). Larger size also means a lower energy demand. Integrated multicellular, hierarchial bodies express a synergy of scale, different hierarchial levels have different charachters. Chrystallization around a nuclei of a critical size (an organising center) and tool using is such characters, that have different degrees only. Language is another. Memory too, in close connection to consciousness.

The whole is more effective than its parts, and gives an adaptive unification (entanglement). The boundaries between two systems are more energetic, and have a higher dissipation. Unification of boundaries 'produce' energy. Also timing of the unification is important. A very rapid unification 'produce' energy very fast, and give lesser chances to adaptation and differentation, and consequently the energy level is lower. To get a high energy level there must be a time-lag between the energy'production' and the relaxation. Energy must be stored. This also gives a flexibility into the system. There are a dynamic balance between expansive (growing) and constraining processes by allowing varying degrees of communication between cell and extracellular matrix. Critical to this balance are both the deformability and permeability of the boundaries, which determine the shapes assumed by cells and patterns of uptake, loss and passage of resources. Associations related to the boundaries (as the cell membrane and microtubulis in the cytoskeleton) can change this relation. Degrees of Freedom: Living in Dynamic Boundaries,is a good book to study these things.

Synergism is the result of oscillations that are controlled well. The living system is an open one, and everything that disturbs the balance (energy input) is dissipation. Some of the disturbances are called control signals, because the system need some energy input, otherwise death follow, and if the dissipation/control signals give still higher dissipation it is called allostasis (a standing wave?). Is the stress even higher the living system will break down and disease follow. Also disease can in this aspect be seen as an allostatic control signal. Death is also an control signal, a feed forward signal, as apoptosis. A destruction of an hierarchy level.

Also everyday activities as eating is a dissipation, as is hearing, seeing, touching, etc. All these are percieved electromagnetically, also touch through mecanoreceptors. Food? I don't know. Maybe the cyclotrone resonances, the radical production. So we also have perceptions for those things, and it's energy can also be too much, or too low, and be pecieved as stress, or only as control. There are no fixed treshold values, they are moving forth and back all the time, following the sensitivity. The pain treshold moving according to mood and stresslevel is a good example. Also the connective tissue and nerve cells have changing sensitivities. Our tissues accumulate energy and have a memory.

In essence this is the anabolic (negentropic) and catabolic (entropic) reactions. Everything depends on your starting point. Everything is energy, but in different forms. Energetically our body is not isolated from the surroundings, but a part of it. In the environment are 'transparent windows' for cosmic radiation, and this radiation will reach us. Especially much radiation in the mm-range do hit us. Magnetic frequencies transverse our bodies also and invoke by resonance. And we live in a gravity field.

Yin and Yang.
But we need also this energy influx as Popp showed, for the organizing, the diminishing of the degrees of freedom, for the quantum criticality. Living systems are constructed to handle dissipation. This follow also the traditional chinese medical philosophy very tightly, but there are other elements too, and environment. Everything must be balanced, at a higher energy level from the surroundings. I really am fond of this picture of Yin and Yang. It can perhaps best be described by interaction, so that in Yang (the material bondings, the negentropy), are always having a seed to change, as Yin, (the energy, the dissipation). Yin turns into Yang by relaxation (organization, homeostasis, energy conservation) and Yang turns into Yin by stress (allostasis, energy production seen in gluconeogenes as instance). An entropy-based model is also described by Kang et al. 2007.

Quantum biology. Stress adaption and accumulation..
Because the interaction of energy/stress with matter, have also immaterial aspects as coherence, visiability, communication, cognition, memory, consciousness, and other immaterial aspects to be energycoded somehow. The relation between dissipation and frequency express this interaction? There are 'windows' of 'effeciency' or 'economy'? This is maximal adaptation or balance? A maximation of entanglement for a smooth result. But also a senitiveness for interactions,otherwise there would be no response of the control signals. Maybe it is the sensitiveness (deformations) that most of all charachter life. Sensitiveness is also criticality. Quantum critical universe is in a well defi ned sense the most intelligent and interesting universe. Criticality is by the de nition something unstable. Situation changes if the fundamental constant of Nature is analogous to critical temperature. The coupling strength (geometry) is analog to the critical temperature, and both types of entropies can be interacting. This (TGD) is so different from string theory.

Except temperature there are a lot of other windows determining the criticality. Acidity is one of the strongest.

Pitkänen writes:
Spin glass analogy could be regarded as one aspect of quantum criticality and states the TGD universe can be regarded as quantum spin glass. Quantum spin glass is phenomenologically characterized by its fractal energy landscape containing valleys inside valleys inside valleys giving rise to extremely complicated system. Quantum self-organization can be described as motion in this kind of energy landscape. p-Adicity can be regarded as one aspect of the quantum spin glassiness. Bio-system as a self-organizing quantum critical spin glass together with the notion of many-sheeted space-time provides rather restrictive general guide line for attempts to construct a general theory of bio-control and -coordination.

The spin aspect also give supraconduction and minimized dissipation, seen as instance in the nerve pulse. The spin can be stored by strain.

Optics and chirality.
The final explanation is in form of quantum optics (QCD), say Popp 2001. There are factors as spatial space and momentum space that give 'possibilities' (potential information) in stored energy (memory = stored 'time'), and quantum energy as direction, vector and spin, and propagation gives stress adaption in actual photon intensity. The derivation from thermal equilibrum is the adaption, the relaxation (= the heat that is not expressed in temp. but fixed otherwise). "Noether's Theorem" says: The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light. Vertebrates has a higher energy level than amphibians. Birds has a higher energy level than vertebrates (body size has also an impact). Popp express the same thing as: 'biological systems use sun energy to build up high-density informational stores, which delay the thermal dissipation and a time lag.' There must be a resonator that can catch the energy. There is also a delayed illuminescence from cells, expressed as relaxation time (in msec to sec). This means either that the reaction also can go backwards, or there are an active emission of light. This emission correlates with growth (organizational capacity). This means that organization in living system is not based on 'nearest neighbour interactions' as in solids, but on entanglement, that every part is connected to every other part interpreted as a 'supergenome'. Fluctuations around this organization/entanglement maximum state (organising centers?) can be seen as entropy fluctuations and have regulatory activity. In seedlings the logaritmic growth show strong organization (genetic?) and is very sensitive to disturbances (control) and correlate with biophoton emission (genome activity). Tumor cells have strong induced emission. The delayed emission is relaxing too (energy is given off). The capacity of the biophoton emission display destructive interference for the extracellular space, and constructive interference within the cells. The cell acts differently than its surroundings.

Charles Shang says:
It is well known that all the physiological systems, including nervous system, are derived from a system of embryogenesis - a growth control system. In growth control, the fate of a larger region is frequently controlled by a small group of cells, which is termed an organizing center or organizer. A gradient of messenger molecules called morphogens forms around organizers.

Current acupuncture research suggests a convergence of the neurophysiology model, the connective tissue model and the growth control model. The growth control model of acupuncture set the first example of a biological model in integrative medicine with significant prediction power across multiple disciplines.

Wave character and quantum character of acupuncture systems from Li et al. 2008, showed that acupuncture meridians are quantal. The scientists looked at the sensation propagation (SQUID) in acupuncture meridian system and found:
- transport along meridian shows a wave pattern of acupuncture with three basic waves, namely 250 sec, 200 sec and 150 sec; the wave character of meridian as from standing waves
- the magnetic spectrum on acupuncture meridian is quite stable with peaks of 12-14 Hz and 28 Hz, strong and almost time-independent
- reveals the big jump of acupuncture meridians from original places to some completely different roads, as big as the electrons jump from some original orbits to some other orbits, when a person is in some abnormal state. It also reveals the quantum character of acupuncture system.

Zhang says:
the objective measurements of physics into acupuncture are quite successful with good reproducibility, in particular the electrical and acoustic measurements. A further study into the background of these results reveals an invisible and dynamic dissipative structure of electromagnetic field, which generally exists in all living systems, which has a lot to do with some mysterious old medicine as acupuncture meridians, charkas and homoeopathy. What is more, a scientific and quantitative way of evaluating the degree of coherence in living systems is developed during the research of the electric measurement on human body.

Memory on cell - level.
Memory is stored time, moments, strain. Consciousness is the process that transforms the actual time into potential, stored time, actual information into potential information, as 'stories' and that we call memories. Potential information is also about all possibilities, and about stored energy, that is organization, networks, and that storage must not be allowed to decay rapidly with time (a time lag, stability). Consciousness needs memory, and stable organization. If we take a higher level of organization, the networks grow in complexity, until finally every particle of a system is connected to every other part of the system. This part can be a cell, an organ, a bodypart etc. Then we have optimal communication. Further increase in complexity needs a decoherence, a break down first. We have theoretically infinite memory, because the information is kept in its original event, and there are relaxation. Because the event are stored, their origin of the actual event is never forgotten either. These stored moments as stored energy accumulate and give stress in the body if the relaxation is not efficient. Memory is important for holography as a glue.

The living matrix.
Chen 1996:
An existing model of the electrical properties of the skin has been the accepted scientific standard for decades. But this model is based entirely on mechanistic principles and it fails to explain many biological phenomena, particularly those relating to acupuncture points and meridians. A new model is developed which, unlike the standard model, includes an active biological response and the fact that the electricity passes though different types of tissue, not just skin.

Oschman (2009) says:
"The living matrix is defined as the continuous molecular fabric of the organism, consisting of fascia, the other connective tissues, extracellular matrices, integrins, cytoskeletons, nuclear matrices and DNA. The extracellular, cellular and nuclear biopolymers or ground substances constitute a body-wide reservoir of charge that can maintain electrical homeostasis (electrostasis?) and 'inflammatory preparedness' throughout the organism. Recent research has emphasized the significance of charge transfer in relation to the scavenging or neutralization of free radicals delivered to sites of injury during and after the oxidative burst. Evidence comes from studies of the role of electrons in mitigating the consequences of inflammation when living systems are connected to the earth (earthing)."
So the body do harm to itself? The same happen to muscle cells during fierceful movements. Also the acupuncture procedure (needle grasp) do harm to the connective tisue in rearrangeging the fibers (Langevin & Yandow 2002). This effect is not restricted to the acupunctures only, but it is stronger/amplified there. Acupuncture points are 'sites of convergence' in a network of connective tissue, where the meridians are 'highways'. Any point outside the network is a 'secondary way'. The connective tissue is a fascia - arch enspanning the whole body, says Upledger. The needling produce cellular changes that propagate along the meridian connective tissue plane. The anatomy of the meridians and acupoints are collagen fiber alignment amplifying the signal. Becker (in the Body electric) talked of acupoints as boost function points that amplified the DC-signal.

Any injury, large or small, results in an oxidative burst in which neutrophils and other white blood cells deliver highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to the region to destroy pathogens and to break down damaged cells and tissues. Becker told of a 'current of injury' that made the signal in nerve axonal transport as an DC-signal, activating the nerve in epidermis-nerve junctional points. Trigger points are focal points (necroses) too. Necroses are also common in toes and finger tips where the most important signalling acupuntures ends.

There are evidence that at least some of the meridians represent low resistance pathways for the conduction of electricity, and it happens through an 'electrical synapses' pathway. Electrons can also act as relaxatants when they 'neutralize' the diamagnetic - paramagnetic differences in radicals. That way electrons are antioxidants too? Is this the pi-stack phenomen seen in chromosomes and the supraconduction in nerve pulse? The EMG emission seen as a phantom?

Improved sleep, pain reduction and rapid healing effects on inflammation are seen as negative charges (free electrons) neutralize free radicals that contribute to chronic health problems. Such health issues can arise from either 'silent inflammation' from old injuries that have not fully resolved, or from the observable symptoms of inflammation: heat (measurable by medical infrared imaging), redness, pain, reduced range of motion at joints and swelling.

Conductive pathways from the skin surface to the tissues and organs throughout the body, and in the opposite direction, has significance for the selfhealing capacity. While skin has a finite resistance, it is clearly not an insulator, and low impedance points have been identified on the skin. Some of these are acupoints, and there is evidence that some of these points are electrically coupled to specific organs (Chen, 1996; Major, 2007). The autonomous nerve system is linked with trigger points (Travell and Simons) and maybe with acupuncture points too. Dura mater and Pia mater is especially interesting in this context, as we shall see later. A control current circuitry formed by collagen network, as suggested by Mae Wan Ho.

The need for a faster mechanism of charge transfer shows up dramatically in peak athletic or artistic performances involving perception and movement that is far too rapid to be explained by slow moving nerve impulses, diffusion of regulatory molecules and chemical reactions rate-limited by diffusion. Athletic events can result in acute injuries, and there is strong motivation for rapid healing so the athlete can re-enter the competition. Experience with elite athletes has repeatedly documented remarkably quick recovery when the injured part of the body is electrically coupled to the earth, and when the athlete is subsequently connected to the earth during sleep and recovery (earthing). Electrons have super highways extending the body?

Stress relaxation in biological tissues.
Stress relaxation is a property of biological tissues that is related to their viscoelastic properties. The stress-strain relationships for a spring and biological tissues such as a blood vessel and bladder can be compared. When a spring is stretched (increased strain applied), the tension (stress) that is generated is proportional to the change in length. Furthermore, the developed tension remains almost constant over time (declines a small amount over time). This decline in pressure (stress) over time at a constant volume (strain) is termed "stress relaxation." That pressure falls while the volume remains constant can be explained by the Law of LaPlace, where wall tension (T) is proportional to pressure (P) times radius (r). When this expression is rearranged and solved for pressure, then P = T/r. Therefore, pressure can fall at constant radius (or volume) if wall tension decreases over time, and this is what occurs during stress relaxation. If an analogous experiment were performed on the bladder (mostly smooth muscle), the stress relaxation would be much greater and occur more rapidly, while a tendon that is primarily composed of collagen shows virtually no stress relaxation. Therefore, different biological tissues display different degrees of stress relaxation. The associative network is extreemly important for the relaxation, seen in the light of muscular dystrophy, where the microtubulis are detached from the cell membrane.

The ability to display stress relaxation is related to the biological function of the different tissues. The bladder must have a good relaxation that gives only a small increase in pressure, while aorta need a resistence to be able to keep up the blood pressure. Because they are viscoelastic, polymers behave in a nonlinear fashion. This nonlinearity is described by both stress relaxation and a phenomenon known as creep, which describes how polymers strain under constant stress.

The following non-material parameters all affect stress relaxation in polymers:
• Magnitude of initial loading
• Speed of loading
• Temperature (isothermal vs non-isothermal conditions)
• Loading medium
• Friction and wear
• Long-term storage

Time dependent effects indicate that the stress-strain behavior of a material will change with time. The classic material model for time dependent effects is viscoelasticity. As the name implies, viscoelasticity incorporates aspects of both fluid behavior (viscous) and solid behavior (elastic).

Most notably, we know that elastic materials store 100% of the energy due to deformation. However, viscoelastic materials do not store 100% of the energy under deformation, but actually lose or dissipate some of this energy. This dissipation is also known as hysteresis. Hysteresis explicitly requires that the loading portion of the stress strain curve must be higher than the unloading curve. The ability to dissipate energy is one of the main properties of viscoelastic materials. The two other main characteristics associated with viscoelastic materials are stress relaxation and creep. Creep is in some sense the inverse of stress relaxation, and refers to the general characteristic of viscoelastic materials to undergo increased deformation under a constant stress. In comparison, elastic materials do not exhibit energy dissipation or hysteresis as their loading and unloading curve is the same. Indeed, the fact that all energy due to deformation is stored is a characteristic of elastic materials.

Extracellular Matrix and adaptation.
Kjær, Michael wrote in 'Role of Extracellular Matrix in Adaptation of Tendon and Skeletal Muscle to Mechanical Loading,' that
'The extracellular matrix (ECM), and especially the connective tissue with its collagen, links tissues of the body together and plays an important role in the force transmission and tissue structure maintenance especially in tendons, ligaments, bone, and muscle. The ECM turnover is influenced by physical activity, and both collagen synthesis and degrading metalloprotease enzymes increase with mechanical loading.'

Liboff 2004, ends up with two postulates:
1. Every living organism is completely described by an electromagnetic field vector Po that is specifically determined by a transformation from the genome.
2. All pathologies, abnormalities and traumas are manifested by deviations from the normal field Po, and, within limits, these deviations are compensated for by the homeostatic tendency of the system to return to Po. (pi noll)

David Awschalom, Nitin Samarth, 2009: Spintronics without magnetism. Physics 2, 50 (2009) DOI: 10.1103/Physics.2.50 http://physics.aps.org/articles/v2/50

Becker, R.O., 1991. Evidence for a primitive DC electrical analog system controlling brain function. Subtle Energies 2, 71–88.

R. O. Becker and G. Selden (1990) The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life. William Morrow & Company, Inc., New York.

Marco Bischof, 2008: Synchronization and Coherence as an Organizing Principle in the Organism, Social Interaction, and Consciousness NeuroQuantology December 2008, Vol 6, Issue 4, Page 440-451. http://www.neuroquantology.com/journal/index.php/nq/article/view/314/295

Chen, K.-G., 1996. Electrical properties of meridians. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, May/June, pp. 58–63, 66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/51.499759

Peter A. Corning, 2008: WHAT IS LIFE? AMONG OTHER THINGS, IT’S A SYNERGISTIC EFFECT! Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, Vol 4, No 1-2 (2008). http://www.cosmosandhistory.org/index.php/journal/article/view/91/182

Ho, M.-W., Knight, D.P., 1998. The acupuncture system and the liquid crystalline collagen fibers of the connective tissues. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 26, 251–263.

Y HongQin, XIE ShuSen, LI Hui, W YuHua, 2009: On optics of human meridians. Science in China Series G: Physics Mechanics and Astronomy Science China Press, co-published with Springer, 1672-1799 (Print) 1862-2844 (Online), Volume 52, Number 4 / April, 2009, DOI 10.1007/s11433-009-0080-7. http://www.scichina.com:8083/sciGe/EN/article/downloadArticleFile.do?attachType=PDF&id=412172

Frank N. Keutsch and Richard J. Saykally, 2001: Water clusters: Untangling the mysteries of the liquid, one molecule at a time. PNAS, Sept 11, 2001 vol. 98 no. 19, 10533-10540. doi:10.1073/pnas.191266498

Kjær, Michael. Role of Extracellular Matrix in Adaptation of Tendon and Skeletal Muscle to Mechanical Loading. Physiol Rev 84: 649–698, 2004; 10.1152/physrev.00031.2003.

Langevin, H.M., 2006. Connective tissue: a body-wide signaling network. Medical Hypotheses 66, 1074–1077.

Helene M. Langevin and Jason A. Yandow, 2002: Relationship of Acupuncture Points and Meridians to Connective Tissue Planes. The Anatomical Record, New Anat. 269:257-265. DOI 10.1002/ar.10185.

Ding-Zhong Li, Wei-Bo Zhang, Shong-Tao Fu, Yu-Ting Liu, Xiu-Zhang Li, Xiao-Yu Wang, Li-Jian Zhang, Shan-Ling Wu, Miao-He Shen, Chang-Lin Zhang, 2008: Wave character and quantum character of acupuncture systems. International Journal of Modelling, Identification and Control. Volume 5, Number 3 / 2008: 229 - 235. http://inderscience.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=searcharticlesresults,1,1;

Abraham R. Liboff, 2004: Toward an Electromagnetic Paradigm for Biology and Medicine.
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. February 2004: 41-47. http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/107555304322848940

Jasmina Lovrić, Sung Ju Cho1, Françoise M. Winnik and Dusica Maysinger, 2005: Unmodified Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots Induce Reactive Oxygen Species Formation Leading to Multiple Organelle Damage and Cell Death. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2005.09.008

Major, D.F., 2007. Electroacupuncture. A Practical Manual and Resource. Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, Edinburgh.

James L. & Nora Oschman 2009: THE DEVELOPMENT of the LIVING MATRIX CONCEPT AND IT’S SIGNIFICANCE for HEALTH AND HEALING. Science of Healing Conference, Kings College, London, March 13, 2009http://www.massage.net/articles/pdfs/Oschman_Living-Matrix-Concept.pdf

M. Pitkänen, 2010: Quantum Control and Coordination in Bio-Systems: part I. http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/pdfpool/qcococI.pdf

A. D. M. Rayner, 1997: Degrees of Freedom: Living in Dynamic Boundaries. Imperial College Press. google books.

Charles Shang, 2006?: The Mechanism of Acupuncture - Beyond Neurohumoral Theory. http://www.acupuncture.com/education/theory/mechanismacu.htm

Schrödinger, E. (1945) What is Life? The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell. New York:The Macmillan Co.

Chang Lin Zhang, 2008: Brief history of modern scientific research into acupuncture systems: a path from static anatomic structure of particles to dynamic dissipative structure of electromagnetic field. International Journal of Modelling, Identification and Control, Volume 5, Number 3 / 2008, pp. 176 - 180. http://inderscience.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,1,13;searcharticlesresults,1,1;

lördag 10 april 2010

Stress and relax. The cell membrane. Brain modeling VIII a.

As we saw in previous postings the criticality, or robustness, in biology is the problem. It is too rigid. But the other way is true too, where is the non-locality and the supraconditions in the biology? Where is the mind? Where is the psyche? Where is memory and consciousness?

String-theory has exactly the same problems, but the other way round. There are only all the possibilities, but no robustness at all. Only mind without body? Can mind be part of the body? Can the problem be solved, and interactions (measurements) be done?

What happen when we do interactions/measurements of our surroundings? If we want to scale down the question we must look at the cell. How do the cell experience its surroundings? There is probably very little difference to the cell if the measurement comes from the own body or from environment. How do the cell differ of meaningful and meaningless (noise) signals? Where can we talk of stress? How do the cell handle too much stress?

If we leave the cell psychology ahead for a while, and look at the surroundings, the perceptions, and the magnetic impact. The cell psychology is as instance the qualia problem, but we have no tools yet to discuss that. We must be reductionistic in this situation.

Membranes in biology.
Membranes are bipolar lipids, with a low dielectric constant (due to fat) and a content of other molecules that can be blocked or drawn from the membrane when they are not wanted or needed. They are phagocytosed mostly. The lipid membrane is floating, loose, and an energy reservoir for phosphorylation, and at the same time a communication tool for the neighbourhood (exocrinal hormonal cell signalling, paracrine and autocrine hormonal signals), sense organs for the cell, etc.

Overview of signal transduction pathways. Wikipedia. Look only at the mess.

Some signals can pass through the membrane without 'passcode', as important ones like oestrogen, insuline, thyroxine, other need a multiply of 'tests' before they are allowed to pass. A second messenger such as Ca++ or cAMP is needed. Then there are other membranes, as the nuclear envelope, that also control it's 'passports'. In principle everything that happens is part of the control output of the cell. There can be no uncontrolled things 'that just happen'.

The 'passport' can also be activated in other ways. For example, the neurotransmitter GABA can activate a cell surface receptor that is part of an ion channel. However, for many cell surface receptors, ligand-receptor interactions are not directly linked to the cell's response. The activated receptor must first interact with other proteins inside the cell, in a signal transduction mechanism or pathway.

An external signal gives conformal changes in a protein-chain interaction, the mitotic cell cycle is involved, receptors that are kinases start phosphorylation of themselves or others, and induce growth, etc. The adaptor proteines do the choise, the jump. The phosphorylated receptor binds to an adaptor protein , which couples the signal to further downstream signaling processes, for instance attach phosphate to target proteins, and alter cell cycle progression, or output. Complex multi-component signal transduction pathways provide opportunities for feedback, signal amplification, and interactions inside one cell between multiple signals and signaling pathways. What decides the choise done by the cell? Has the cell a free will? As we see many of these steps are also quantum biological. Has the quantum biology, the holographic body, any meaning for the cell?

This is a very simplified picture, where I try to point at essential features only. You can see at a sample of communication ways below. I cannot go into depth into the extremengly interesting signalling this time. You only need to know how complicated it is.

A. The cell membrane.
The cell membrane is more a loci only. A place where signals arrive. Adey, one of the pioneers and big names in this field say 1988 in 'Cell Membranes: The Electromagnetic Environment and Cancer Promotion',
...the sequence and energetics of events that couple humoral stimuli from surface receptor sites to the cell interior has identified cell membranes as a primary site of interaction with these low frequency fields. Field modulation of cell surface chemical events indicates a major amplification of initial weak triggers associated with binding of hormones, antibodies and neurotransmitters to their specific binding sites. Calcium ions play a key role in this stimulus amplification, probably through highly cooperative alterations in binding to surface glycoproteins, with spreading waves of altered calcium binding across the membrane surface. Protein particles spanning the cell membrane form pathways for signaling and energy transfer. Fields millions of times weaker than the membrane potential gradient of 10^5 V/cm modulate cell responses to surface stimulating molecules. The evidence supports nonlinear, nonequilibrium processes at critical steps in transmembrane signal coupling. Powerful cancer-promoting phorbol esters act at cell membranes to stimulate ornithine decarboxylase which is essential for cell growth and DNA synthesis. This response is enhanced by weak microwave fields, also acting at cell membranes
Adey says that cell membranes, in coupling humoral stimuli (hormones, neurotransmitters and antibodies) from surface receptor sites to the cell interior, functions as a primary site of interaction with weak oscillating EM fields in the pericellular fluid. This would mean that the primary signal comes not from the cell alone, but from the cell environment. And the signal is forcefully amplified in the passage through the membrane. This we know is true, but not in every case. The important GCPR-receptors stand out here, making up for about half of all receptors. They are most often the targets for the drugs. EM fields in fluid surrounding cells modulate inward and outward signal streams through cell membranes. Is this the real impact? He writes:
Careful evaluation of these field actions has revealed subtle effects that betoken mechanisms of interaction based on long range interactions and nonequilibrium processes. Temperature increments are not the primary substrates of the observed biological sensitivities.

This was tested for lymphoid cells (leukemia) in 1995. Electromagnetic waves (1G, 60 Hz -this is quite high stimulus level) stimulates the protein tyrosine kinases, so that it results in tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple electrophoretically distinct substrates, and leads to downstream activation of protein kinase C (PKC). A wave of 'destruction' into the cell. But this destruction is selective, some kinases are stimulated, and a delicate growth regulatory balance might be altered.

In fact there are many studies revelaing a link between cancer and EM-fields. Humanmade fields are substantially above the naturally occurring ambient electric and magnetic fields of ~10^-4 Vm^-1 and ~10^-13 T, respectively. Several epidemiological studies have concluded that ELF-EMFs may be linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly childhood leukemia. How might EMFs induce cancer?

Magnetic fields can also change the opioid levels, by modulating the gene expression.
Ventura et al. writes:
Magnetic fields have been shown to affect cell proliferation and growth factor expression in cultured cells. Although the activation of endorphin systems is a recurring motif among the biological events elicited by magnetic fields, compelling evidence indicating that magnetic fields may modulate opioid gene expression is still lacking. We therefore investigated whether extremely low frequency (ELF) pulsed magnetic fields (PMF) may affect opioid peptide gene expression and the signaling pathways controlling opioid peptide gene transcription in the adult ventricular myocyte, a cell type behaving both as a target and as a source for opioid peptides.
Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate that an opioid gene is activated by myocyte exposure to PMF and that the cell nucleus and nuclear embedded PKC are a crucial target for the PMF action. Due to the wide ranging importance of opioid peptides in myocardial cell homeostasis, the current data may suggest consideration for potential biological effects of PMF in the cardiovascular system.
Vetura, cont.
Magnetic fields may elicit multiple effects in biological systems, including behavioural changes in intact organisms. Effects of MF on opioid-related events may have important implications in cellular homeostasis. Among the regulatory systems that appear to be targeted are endogenous opioid peptides. MF can produce analgesic effects through an opioid receptor-mediated mechanism and are able to affect the spontaneous electrical brain activity by interfering with the action of both exogenous and endogenous opioids. In mice, MF have been found to enhance the duration of pharmacologically-induced anaesthesia by releasing endogenous opioids and/or enhancing the activity of opioid signaling pathways. The capability of MF of controlling the central cholinergic system also appears to depend on the activation of an opioidergic pathway. Opioid receptor antagonism also attenuated MF-induced antiparkinsonian effects in man. Opioid peptides may act as growth modulators and may control both cell differentiation and architecture in a wide variety of tissues. The myocardial cell responds to opioid receptor stimulation with deep changes in cytosolic Ca2+/pH homeostasis and contractility. Dynorphin B released Ca2+ from an intracellular store acted in an autocrine fashion to stimulate the transcription of its coding gene (for dynorphin B), involving an impairment of cell growth and differentiation. A delicate growth regulatory balance may be altered following nuclear PKC activation by PMF. PMF-induced prodynorphin gene transcription resulted in the increase of both intracellular and secreted dynorphin B. Dynorphin B is known to bind selectively opioid receptors and the stimulation of these receptors in cardiac myocytes has been shown to promote phosphoinositide turnover, depletion of Ca2+ in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and leading to a marked decrease in the amplitude of the cytosolic Ca2+ transient oscillations and in that of the associated contraction of the heart. Ventura et al ask: Why would hearth cells have a system capable of reacting to PMF? In isolated nuclei an opioid gene can be independently and fully activated by PMF, as in the intact cell. The property of conveying nuclear signaling to the modulation of gene transcription may disclose new perspectives in the molecular dissection of the biological effects.

Magnetic fields may
- alter human cardiac rhythm (Ventura et al.)
- enhance the occurrence of arrhythmia-related heart problems (Ventura et al.)
- induce stress responses that protect the embryonic myocardium from anoxia damage (chick)
- influence the spontaneous electrical brain activity (rat) (Vorobyov et al.1998.) consistent with the findings of other groups demonstrating that weak magnetic fields may drastically modify the effects of both exogenous and endogenous opioids on different basic functions in vertebrates and invertebrates.

Lithium- and dopamine effects.
Modification of a brain opioid system may contribute to the clinical response to lithium. Li increase the phosphorylation, but not in the presence of Ca2+ or Ca2+ and calmodulin. Chronic lithium treatment affects some signal transduction mechanisms such as cAMP, cGMP, inositol 1,4,5 P3, Gi protein, protein kinase C and can also modify gene expression in rat brain. Li affects the adrenoceptors and their half lives (=turnover rate). Administration of Li is associated with a reduction in retinal light sensitivity, but chronic lithium use is not associated with differences in retinal light sensitivity, and no retinal toxicity is feared. Li diminish neostriatal dopaminergic activity, but the underlying mechanisms do not appear to involve modifications in either the D1 or the D2 receptor primary ligand recognition sites. The hypothesis of an increased dopamine synthesis is not supported and Li modified the affinity of DA transporters for the radioligand, possibly a consequence of conformational changes induced by the disruption of the nerve terminal membrane environment. Lithium blocks isolation-induced hypersensitivity, especially of the β-adrenergic system. Isolation reduce motor activity, seen in rats. Lithium has an inhibitory effect on neuroleptic receptors ([3H]spiroperidol binding sites) in the limbic-forebrain and on serotonin receptors ([3H]serotonin binding sites) in the hippocampus. Serotonin directs the attention amongst others. The effect of lithium ion on the electrically stimulated 5-[3H]hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from the rat hippocampal decreased when exposed to 5-HT, but Li did not affect release alone but inhibited together with serotonin. Li may inhibit the regulation of 5-HT release via presynaptic 5-HT autoreceptors in rat hippocampus.
The response on penile erection induced by apomorphine, a mixed Dl/D2 dopamine receptor agonist, (0.05-0.5 mg/kg), was decreased in animals pretreated with chronic lithium, and inhibitory effect of sulpiride increased too. No bliss with Li.

Serotonergic (5-HT) dysfunction has been hypothesized in mania, but the results are inconsistent. The platelet 5-HT2 receptor is neither a state marker nor a trait marker in mania, and maybe the serotonin hypothesis is wrong. There are though a clear up- or down-regulation of platelet serotonin receptor responsiveness in bipolar and unipolar depression.

The effect on second messengers is interesting too. Lithium reduced the inhibitory ability of carbachol, and reduced the degree of stimulation of formation of inositol phosphate, induced by noradrenaline. Chronic effects of administration of lithium may be related to actions at the G protein level and that different modes of coupling of receptors to G proteins may be responsible for the variety of effects observed.

A selective D1 dopamine receptor antagonist, blocked an increase in cAMP formation of all of the dopamine agonists investigated. Are there a relationship between the D1 receptor-stimulated increase in cAMP formation and the induction of dyskinesia in Parkinsonian humans? Robust catalepsy follow from D1 receptor blockade (rat), while dopamine agonists (as apomorphine) effects on bradycardia (induced by stim vagus nerve) decreased significantly the vagal nerve -induced (but blocked by sulpiride) but not the acetylcholine-induced bradycardia, and suggest the presence of presynaptic and/or ganglionic dopamine DA2 receptors in the parasympathetic innervation of the rat heart, stimulation of which inhibits the release of acetylcholine. As a parenthesis I must say Li is mostly used to prevent mania. Stork & Renshaw, 2005, propose a hypothesis of mitochondrial dysfunction in bipolar disorder that involves impaired oxidative phosphorylation, a resultant shift toward glycolytic energy production, a decrease in total energy production and/or substrate availability, and altered phospholipid metabolism.

Dopaminergic and opioidergic systems interact in the striatum in the brain to modulate locomotor and motivated behaviors. Dopamine modulate opioid receptor-mediated signal transduction. Repeated activation of D1 receptors attenuates the functional coupling of delta opioid receptors with adenylyl cyclase due to decreased coupling between delta receptors and G proteins.

Li acts through cyclotrone resonanse frequencies, as Ca, and Fe do? It's secrets cannot be revealed on cellular level?

Age and cAMP-production.
Blood vessels from aged animals and humans have impaired relaxation and cAMP production to β-adrenergic stimulation, but direct activators of adenylyl cyclase are not affected. Would the effects on cAMP production occur in membrane? Aortic media membrane was studied in rats. Basal AC activity increased significantly with age, but no age-related decrease in responsiveness for G protein activators, or receptor agonists β-adrenergic and PGE-1 (prostaglandin). The membrane system to assess age-related changes in β-adrenergic responsiveness seem not be the case. Cocaine reduce cAMP production, as age do. A functional change in a critical signal transduction pathway and effects the development of the brain.

Overall membrane charachters.
So, it seem it is not the membrane that is magnetically active, but the receptors, and they may be activated through an magnetic attraction of the second messengers cAMP, Ca++, GTP etc. These second messengers then amplify the signal.

But the membrane give very clear response in magnetic induction fields, seen in fMRI. The cell membrane and especially its receptors, acts as a capture for magnetic waves, just as the genes are captures, seen in the promoter genes. The magnetic field (weak permanent homogenous hirizontal magnetic field (PMF) 400 A/m) affects the lipid constitution too. In radish seedlings Novitskaya et al. found that PMF increased the ratio of phospholipids to sterols by 30–100%, and suppressed the formation of polar lipids in light (by 18%), whereas in darkness, it stimulated it approximately by 80%, very temperature dependant. PMF exerted the strongest effect on the content of erucic acid. PMF behaved as a correction factor affecting lipid metabolism on the background of light and temperature action. Membrane composition also varies between vertebrates and the degree of polyunsaturation of membrane phospholipids is correlated with cellular metabolic activity, so that more phospholipids give a faster metabolism. Membranes can act as pacemakers for overall metabolic activity. Such membrane polyunsaturation increases the molecular activity of many membrane-bound proteins and consequently some specific membrane leak–pump cycles and cellular metabolic activity. A greater transfer of energy during intermolecular collisions of membrane proteins with the unsaturated two carbon units (C=C) of polyunsaturates compared to the single carbon units of saturated acyl chains, as well as the more even distribution of such units throughout the depth of the bilayer when membranes contain polyunsaturated acyl chains compared to monounsaturated ones. The proposed pacemaker role of differences in membrane bilayer composition have importance to the brain (and sensory cells), evolution of mammalian endothermic metabolism, etc.

When a cell is exposed to a time-varying magnetic field, this leads to an induced voltage on the cytoplasmic membrane, as well as on the membranes of the internal organelles, such as mitochondria. These potential changes in the organelles could have a significant impact on their functionality. The amount of polarization in the organelle was less than its counterpart in the cytoplasmic membrane. This was largely due to the presence of the cell membrane, which "shielded" the internal organelle from excessive polarization by the field. Organelle polarization was largely dependent on the frequency of the magnetic field.

Regional polarization of the cytoplasmic membrane and the organelle membrane by the time-varying magnetic field. The plot demonstrated an instant polarization pattern on both membranes. The color map represented the amount of polarization (in mV) calculated with the standard values listed in table 1. A. Field frequency was 10 KHz. B. Field frequency was 100 KHz. Ye et al. 2010.

The effect is also seen in a pattern generation of the molecules in the cell membrane. Distinct 'fields' are clearly seen. This is partly a result of chemical attractions, but also electric and magnetic. The danish solitonic nerve pulse model clearly show such patterns.

Electric field vector plot and potential distribution near the plasma membrane with mobile surface charges in an alternating electric field. The uniform electric field in the cell is greater at (a) 106 Hz than at (b) 102 Hz. The excitation field is 1.0 V/cm. Vajrala et al. 2008. Observe that this is an electric field.

Elastic fibres have important cell adhesion functions. Electron microscopy and biochemical studies have highlighted strong interaction with their subendothelial elastic fibre-containing matrix, and with juxtaposed elastic fibre lamellae at cell surface dense plaques. These interactions are mediated mainly through heterodimeric transmembrane receptors.

Many diseases depends on the microtubuli - attatchment to the cell membrane. Myotrophies as Duchennes and Beckers dystrofies are one result. Without a proper cytosceleton the cell cannot work.

B. How might EMFs induce cancer?
Lacy-Hulberta et al. writes:
Free radicals are generated as intermediates in metabolism and may attack lipids, proteins, and DNA. Thus, any elevation in free radical production could increase the rate of chemical damage to DNA as occurs, for example, as a consequence of sustained activation of the immune system in response to chronic infection. Magnetic fields of more than 1 mT can have measurable effects on the kinetics and yield of chemical reactions that use geminate radical pairs through their effect on the spin precession rates of unpaired electrons and consequent effects on the lifetime of radicals. The magnetic field can increase or decrease precession rates between singlet and triplet spin-correlated states. Hence, a geminate radical pair born in the singlet spin state may rapidly recombine; after precession to the triplet spin state, recombination is prohibited by the Pauli exclusion principle, resulting in a longer radical lifetime. The consequence of this may be, for example, increased enzyme product or release of radicals from the enzyme.

Electromagnetic field effects on free radical processes. A) A reaction between two species can generate a pair of radicals in the triplet state with parallel electron spin. If one of the electrons converts to a different state, changing its spin, the radical pair can react to form product. B) This change involves transfer of the electron between the three triplet states: T0, T-1, and T+1. These states are normally degenerate, but in a magnetic field the energies separate. When this separation is less than the hyperfine reaction for the system, the radicals created in the triplet states can be transformed into singlets and react. When the separation is greater than the hyperfine reaction, radicals created in T-1 and T+1 triplet states cannot interconvert and hence reaction cannot take place. However, an alternating magnetic field of frequency {upsilon} can excite electron transitions between levels, allowing transition to the singlet states even in high magnetic fields.

Alternating magnetic fields superimposed on static magnetic fields can further affect reactions by providing quanta of energy equal to the gap between singlet and triplet states, allowing transition of radicals and hence increasing reaction probability. The effect requires both static magnetic fields and fields fluctuating at a resonance frequency. These examples (ROS, neutrophiles) represent clear, reproducible effects of magnetic fields on biochemical systems with a firm theoretical basis. Effects are reported from 0.1 mT fields at 60 Hz. Nitric oxide production is also interesting, as other immune reactions.

A free radical basis for magnetic field effects would have some important implications for investigations and epidemiological studies. The processes affected occur very rapidly, and so at the level of simple effects are independent of frequency; in many cases, the geomagnetic field exposure would far outweigh the alternating field. However, as described above, more complex effects can occur in vitro with specific combinations of static and alternating magnetic fields, and these combinations vary with the free radical species involved.

This also correlates with the radical-pair theory of Ritz mentioned in earlier posting. Also with the laser-effects found by Tiina Karu. Seedling growth magnetically sensitive as a result of photoinduced radical-pair reactions in cryptochrome photoreceptors—tested by measuring several cryptochrome-dependent responses, all of which proved to be enhanced in a magnetic field of intensity 500 μT, show a way forward.

C. The Extracellular Matrix (ECM).
Disturbances and dysfunctions are most evident effects of longterm illness, and medicines seldom can change this. Is the reason somewhere else? In the synchronisation/control-levels, but not at cell-level? To believe something else only means misuse of medicine? We need to look at the networks, to step up a level in the molecular hierarchies. Maybe the reason to the induced control-signals are found there?

We have seen that many of the signals indeed arrive from outside the cell, even gene regulation signals. When we look at the SRP-molecule in the promoter-gene we find all those loops that will change the magnetic field very strongly, make superpositions as Lacy-Hulberta et al. suggests.

In fact, Nature herself use networks, as seen in nerves, blood circulation, gap junction systems, nanotubes, hormonal systems, meridians etc. Maybe there are an oxygen network too, as Mae Wan Ho said? Oxygen makes more energy available and at greater efficiency; at the same time, it increases the complexity of metabolic networks. A network that take part very much in the relaxation in form of negentropic bindings. A fast relaxation is important for the functions in the organisms. They are as important as the very minute signal is. In fact,it is exactly the relaxation that make up the robustness and criticality in matter. It is the probabilities that changes in different magnetic fields, The relaxation leads to polarization. Adhesion and adsorption makes it go faster and time is very important too.

Paluch et al. writes 2006:
The shape of animal cells is, to a large extent, determined by the cortical actin network that underlies the cell membrane. Because of the presence of myosin motors, the actin cortex is under tension, and local relaxation of this tension can result in cortical flows that lead to deformation and polarization of the cell. Cortex relaxation is often regulated by polarizing signals, but the cortex can also rupture and relax spontaneously. A similar tension-induced polarization is observed in actin gels growing around beads, and we propose that a common mechanism governs actin gel rupture in both systems.

We shall look at yet a network, the extracellular matrix, that do supramolecular organizations, and is non-local and very fast. But that will be in a new posting, 'Stress and relax. The Extracellular Matrix. Brain modelling VIII b', coming soon.

I will finish with some words from Matti Pitkänen.
In this framework the energy feed to the system means that the (quantum) superposition changes in such a manner that the average energy of the positive energy state increases. This excites new degrees of freedom and makes the system more complex. The dissipation caused by quantum jumps reducing entanglement entropy tends to reduce the average energy and this tendency is compensated by the energy feed selecting also the most stable self-organization patterns as a flow equilibrium.

The hologrammic organization is the ultimate, most stable organization. But in a holistic model ought the gravity also be included. Maybe we will soon know what gravity really is?

W.R.Adey 1988: Cell Membranes: The Electromagnetic Environment and Cancer Promotion. Neurochemical Research, Vol. 13, No. 7, 1988, pp. 671-677. http://www.springerlink.com/content/h507p8wq85141871/fulltext.pdf?page=1

W. Ross Adey 1993: Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 51:410-416 (1993). http://www.energycelltherapy.co.uk/pdfs/biological.pdf

Sue-Re Harris, Kevin B. Henbest, Kiminori Maeda, John R. Pannell, Christiane R. Timmel, P.J. Hore and Haruko Okamoto, 2009: Effect of magnetic fields on cryptochrome-dependent responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. J. R. Soc. Interface 6 December 2009 vol. 6 no. 41 1193-1205.

Adam Lacy-Hulberta, James C. Metcalfea, and Robin Hesketh, 1998: Biological responses to electromagnetic fields. The FASEB Journal. 1998;12:395-420. http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/full/12/6/395

E. Paluch, J. van der Gucht, and C. Sykes (2006): Cracking up: symmetry breaking in cellular systems. J. Cell Biol. 175, 687-692 http://jcb.rupress.org/content/175/5/687.abstract

Fatih M. Uckun, Tomohiro Kurosaki, Jizhong Jin, Xiao Jun, Andre Morgan, Minoru Takata, Joseph Bolen and Richard Luben, 1995: Exposure of B-lineage Lymphoid Cells to Low Energy Electromagnetic Fields Stimulates Lyn Kinase. November 17, 1995 The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270, 27666-27670. doi: 10.1074/jbc.270.46.27666

Vijayanand Vajrala, James R. Claycomb, Hugo Sanabria, and John H. Miller, Jr., 2008: Effects of Oscillatory Electric Fields on Internal Membranes: An Analytical Model. Biophys J. 2008 March 15; 94(6): 2043–2052. doi: 10.1529/biophysj.107.114611. PMCID: PMC2257880 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2257880/?tool=pubmed

Vasily Vasilievitch Vorobyov, Evgeni Alekseevitch Sosunov, Nikolai Ilitch Kukushkin and Valeri Vasilievitch Lednev, 1998: Weak combined magnetic field affects basic and morphine-induced rat's EEG. Brain Research Volume 781, Issues 1-2, 19 January 1998, Pages 182-187. doi:10.1016/S0006-8993(97)01228-6

Carlo Venturaa, Margherita Maiolia, Gianfranco Pintusa, Giovanni Gottardic and Ferdinando Bersani, 2000: Elf-pulsed magnetic fields modulate opioid peptide gene expression in myocardial cells. Cardiovasc Res (2000) 45 (4): 1054-1064. doi: 10.1016/S0008-6363(99)00408-3

Hui Ye, Marija Cotic, Eunji E Kang, Michael G Fehlings, and Peter L Carlen, 2010: Transmembrane potential induced on the internal organelle by a time-varying magnetic field: a model study. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2010; 7: 12. doi: 10.1186/1743-0003-7-12. PMCID:PMC2836366 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2836366/