tisdag 6 april 2010

Sensitivity. Brain modelling VII.

"But one serious question would arise at this point. That is, how could one guarantee the robustness of such seemingly classical phenomena including our brain activities." - Matsuno Koichiro. "It seems that consciousness operates very well in the classical realm." In: A Quantum Leap in Biology. The quantum criticality is the big problem. Is the Schrödinger cat dead or alive?

In previous posting we saw that it was coordination and control that governed living matter. Coordination is negentropy that diminish the degrees of freedom, control is entropy, a growing energy inflow and chaos. Phase transitions and quantum tunnellings, that is motor reactions, are maybe the outcome of control. It is quantum tunnelling that diminish the degrees of freedom most. Receptors are very much about quantum tunnelling. According to the earlier post this also determine the sensitivity of living matter, through subCDs ('causal diamonds'), branchings, fractality and topology; that is by maximazing the negentropy.

Neuronal synchronization, coordination.
Synchronization is spatial and temporal, non-dissipative and negentropic. It is one part of the sensitivity. Neurons are indeed capable of synchronizing to increase the sensitivity. Neuronal networks appear to respond to fields with more sensitivity than single neurons. A collective population effect seen in detector numbers and/or their couplings. (I) Branching gives a higher sensitivity.

The other part of sensitivity is control. Modulation by small fields has advantages in control devices that use electric fields to modulate neuronal networks. Photons can be used as well, as seen in Popp's works. The control can both stimulate and inhibite and operate at the smallest possible field strength to minimize the potential for unwanted functional effects or tissue damage from long-term chronic stimulation. An extremely small signal is used, related to the sensitivity.

Peripheral nerves are situated in a highly non-homogeneous environment, including muscles, bones, blood vessels, etc. what makes the control much more difficult. The control signal must be well directed and meaningful (not give dissonances). This answers the question 'When is this interaction harmful?' Information about the perceptive environmental or endogen field = disturbances of the harmonic synchronity. So we have a synchronity that is disturbed (stressed). Is the outcome harmony, then we talk of regulation, but if the outcome is disharmony it can still be regulated by inducing more stress (giving more energy), until next harmonious level is reached. This we call allostasy. Disease can also be seen as allostasy, if it make the individ change his perception fields (energy intake) or balance his degrees of freedom seen in organization (change his lifestyle often).

In the case of magnetoreception we have to use amplitude windows (that is the perception fields for our senses), that is, to shield against too high environmental or endogen magnetic influence, so we can keep the sensitivity. But to shield too much is not good either. Living systems benefit from magnetic fields, and give more motor output. Living systems are open systems that interact with the environment. The sensitivity is resonating too? Too much or too little control give an stress-effect. It is the control functions that have the most severe impact from ELF-fields, as Pitkänen suggests? Homeostasis is normal biocontrol with negative control loops, striving to harmony; allostasis is a control with exaggerated loops that enlarge the disturbance, until it reach harmonious levels?

Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields.
Magnetic fields can be percieved but not electric fields (Marino & Becker). Magnetic fields give mostly an effect on the motor output of the system, where short-term memory, cognition, psychomotor functions and biochemical reactions all are included. Magnetic fields have links to photoreception in the eye, and produce lightphenomena.

One of the key questions related to interactions of low-frequency magnetic fields with biological systems is which parameters of the exposure field are responsible for observed effects. When a cell is exposed to a time-varying magnetic field, this leads to an induced voltage on the cytoplasmic membrane, as well as on the membranes of the internal organelles, such as mitochondria. It do not have to be the field that change,the same result comes from a living object moving in graded fields. And magnetic fields have often a steep gradient. Spatial patterns of induced electric fields and currents in the tissues are important, seen in A 3-D pattern, or 4-D if the time aspect are included (the locomotion or the wave density). Consciousness is perhaps a derivate of time as sampled moments (Popp)or stories.

Baureus et al could quantitatively confirm the quantum mechanical theoretical model by Blanchard,which assume that biologically active ions can be bound to a channel protein and influence the opening state of the channel. Suitable combinations of static and time varying magnetic fields directly interact with the Ca(2+) channel protein in the cell membrane.
A random model indicates that for higher cell densities the pattern of the induced current flow depends mostly on the actual cell placement. Gap junctions, not surprisingly, are shown to increase the current density (they form networks), but only if their resistance is sufficiently low. The highest current density occurs in the gaps. Lowest resistence is in the acupunctures (and meridians, with gap-junctions).

Ritz, 2000, has made a radical-pair theory for MF-ELF. Behavioral and theoretical studies suggest a link between photoreception and magnetoreception in some animals, as seen in migrating birds etc. They claim the possibility that magnetoreception involves radical-pair processes that are governed by anisotropic hyperfine coupling between (unpaired) electron and nuclear spins. Theoretically fields of geomagnetic field strength and weaker can produce significantly different reaction yields for different alignments of the radical pairs with the magnetic field. As a model for a magnetic sensory organ we propose a system of radical pairs being
1) orientationally ordered in a molecular substrate and
2) exhibiting changes in the reaction yields that affect the visual transduction pathway. 3-D visual modulation patterns can arise from the influence of the geomagnetic field on radical-pair systems. The variations of these patterns with orientation and field strength can furnish the magnetic compass ability of birds with the same characteristics as observed in behavioral experiments. He proposes that the recently discovered photoreceptor cryptochrome is part of the magnetoreception system.

The model seems to hold. It have been prooved a lot since 2000.

To describe the interactions of weak electromagnetic fields on channel proteins in the cell membrane, Malka, 2009, evaluated three models. The Ion Parametric Resonance model predicts a biological response at well-defined resonance frequencies for magnetic fields exceeding about 10 micro-Tesla. The oscillating magnetic field is assumed to act on proteins together with the earth's static magnetic field. This model predicts amplitude windows. We explain how a purely magnetic interaction, where in a two-stage ion magnetic resonance model, the conformation of a protein is changed under the influence of ions attached to its surface, which in turn, changes the function of the protein, can overcome the inherent signal-to-noise problem caused by electric thermal noise.
The hydrogen nuclear polarization model predicts a biological response for oscillating magnetic field strengths above 0.1 micro-Tesla. The presence of a static magnetic field is required, and biological effects can be expected for frequencies below a few hundred hertz.
The forced vibration model cannot be applied for amplitude modulated microwaves.

Saunders et al. The integrative properties of the synapses and neural networks of the CNS render cognitive function sensitive to the effects of physiologically weak electric fields, below the threshold for peripheral nerve stimulation (cognitions are subconscious). However, the only direct evidence of these weak field interactions within the CNS is the induction of magnetic phosphenes in humans-the perception of faint flickering light in the periphery of the visual field, by magnetic field exposure. Other tissues are potentially sensitive to induced electric fields through effects on voltage-gated ion channels, but the sensitivity of these ion channels is likely to be lower than those of nerve and muscle cells specialized for rapid electrical signaling. In addition, such tissues lack the integrative properties of synapses and neuronal networks that render the CNS potentially more vulnerable. See Marino & Becker for more details.

AC/DC electric fields.
AC sinusoidal electric fields have smaller effects on transmembrane potentials: sensitivity drops as an exponential decay function of frequency. At 50 and 60 Hz it is approximately 0.4 that for DC fields. This gives a smaller window for changing fields (maybe by creating standing waves). In AC fields, particles experience polarizing effects that induce dipoles that orient elongated specimens either parallel or perpendicular to the field lines, seen in for instance photoreceptor cells. The internal structure of the rods is complex, hundreds of membrane sacs (disks) being packed in a very ordered manner (the disks stack). The primary reactions of visual transduction occur within the disk membrane. (II)Ordered, negentropic structures are more sensitive to ELF-fields.

The cells are orienting, deforming, moving, or rotating. These effects originate in the interfacial polarization produced by AC field at the structural interfaces within the cell. Interaction of the induced cellular dipole with the external field results in translation or rotation of cells, according to their dielectric properties. (III) Interfaces, or extracellular spaces are more sensitive than intercellular structures.

Whether weak environmental ELF fields affect neuronal firing will be a function of the reduction in ambient field by the anatomic layers surrounding the brain and the neuronal modulation threshold. Anatomic layers are perineural sheat, myelin, fat, membranes etc.

How is the shielding done?
Oriented low amplitude effects, as in lipid layers, are distinct from the depolarization block seen with unoriented fields of higher amplitude and frequency.

1. Depolarisation effects.
- transmembrane potentials, lipids have a low dielectric constant. In the case of extremely low frequency electric fields (ELF, 1–300 Hz) modulation of membrane potential is the most likely. The linear dielectric response of cells in suspension directly correlates with the membrane potential. The extreme shielding is the myelin-sheat around the axons. The condition of the cell membrane is also very important; cholesterol, proteines, enzymes etc. Mitochondrions have a many-layer membrane. In the cytoplasma are many membranes too. Modelling shows that the membranes shield the magnetic fields, and keep the intracellular space quite normal. This is classic physics, also described by Presman 1970.
- effects on timing give distinct thresholds. These threshold fields are consistent with current environmental guidelines. They correspond to changes in somatic potential of approximately 70 microV, below membrane potential noise levels for neurons, demonstrating the emergent properties of neuronal networks can be more sensitive than measurable effects in single neurons.
- neuronal shape, cell geometry, extracellular-to-intracellular volume ratio. Theory predicts that elongated neurons (geometry) should have submillivolt per millimeter sensitivity, as seen above. Significant interaction in normal, rounded cells with an electric field requires an effect on cellular biochemical processes fluctuations relevant to biological membranes such as voltage-gated ion channels and their associated ion fluxes.greater than the "molecular shot noise" driven by macromolecular thermal fluctuations. Based on an elongated neuron model with thermal noise, the threshold for electric field interaction was much lower, estimated near 100 µV/mm (Weaver et al., 1998). Reason: the neural inhibition? It is suggested that there are no clear threshold (Deans 2007).
- weak perturbations can synchronize oscillatory physical systems. Neural inhibition has a compressing and timing effect. Endogenous local field potentials, as calciumwaves, resting membrane potentials, etc. are large enough to play a role in the synchronization of neuronal networks in the intact brain. Noise can synchronize too. Because small fields can modulate neuronal excitability in a subthreshold manner, network activity could modulate the excitability of cells that are not spiking and of cells not connected synaptically to the firing neurons producing the electrical fields (see place cells, odor recognition), where the phase of the rhythmic local field potential is important in neural encoding.
- Cyclotrone resonances, calciumwaves are the most important harmonious endogenous field wave.

2. Populational effects.
- Cellular packing, consistent structure, as seen in hippocampus. CA1 is so dense that it can display epileptiform events even in the absence of functioning chemical synapses. Electric fields play likely a significant role in ensemble activity. They increases the electrical impedance and field interactions between cells.

3. Orientational effects.
- somata asymmetrically placed with respect to their dendritic trees, and the sensitivity of a neuron (hippocampal pyramidal cells) to firing rate modulation from an imposed electric field is related to the amount of positional asymmetry of the soma with respect to the dendritic tree.
- adjacent cells have parallel dendrites, which favor interaction with fields aligned along the collective somatodendritic axes

4. Outer field effects.
- neuronal resonant frequencies and waveforms sinusoidal input fields might decrease further the field strength required to observe synchronization.
- stochastic resonance, added noise. 'White noise' electric field stimulation with spike-triggered averaging of the preceding electric field optimize the field morphology (harmony created?).
- conformational changes can come from induced potential across membranes and affect metabolic processes in the mitochondria and give rise to harmonic generation at multiples of the excitation frequency. The induced potential is highly sensitive to changes in matrix conductivity, both increasing and shifting dramatically to lower frequencies with decreasing matrix conductivity. According to the chemiosmotic model, energy stored in the transmembrane electrochemical gradient is converted into the bond energy of ATP by the ATP synthase. The proton motive force (PMF) drives the production of ATP. The proton (pH) gradient contributes to about 60 mV with a difference of about - 140 mV for a net PMF of about 200 mV. This corresponds to a change in Gibbs free energy of - 4,6 kcal/mole for each proton translocation. This oscillatory component, when added to the excisting membrane potential, could easily modulate the conformational states, resulting in nonlinear harmonic response (give an output = motor effect).

5. Water content.
Marino & Becker points to the importance of water. Chronic exposure to ELF-fields give stress (corticosteorids and triglycerids in blood up), inhibited phagocytos in several organs, a growing rate of organization/repair in bones, medication amount down, an negative impact on growth of testes, thyreoidea, and an increased consumption of water. Ohno (2001) mentions that symptoms in aging are the same as from magnetic fields: fever, nausea, dizzieness, disorientation, and dehydration speed up the disease process. Na-intake makes things worse. A 5% water loss starts the body deteroriation, seen in fatigue, general discomfort and abnormal body chemistry. Does the 'chrystal water' in cells also react?

Membranes and the Extracellular Matrix.
At first sight, such changes in membrane potential seem orders of magnitude too small to significantly influence neuronal signalling. However, in the CNS a number of mechanisms exist which amplify signals. This may allow such small changes in membrane potential to induce significant physiological effects.

DC electric fields applied to the CA1 region showed (Deans et al. 2007) that the resulting changes in transmembrane potential had a time constant of several tens of milliseconds (which also says that AC fields at powerline frequencies will have weaker effects). The time aspect is treated in content of consciousness.

The extracellular matrix is very important for the health aspect and for the magnetic-electric induction. Also the water content is important. Alfred Pischinger has done much for the understanding of this field. His book 'The Extracellular Matrix and Ground Regulation' is a classic.

Organizational capacity.
Induced harmony, negentropy, resonance tuning between coherent fields and biological matter (preferently DNA) governs the availibility of energy in a cocerted action of the whole, says Popp. This would mean that magnetic waves are always coherent, and holistic. Change one part of the field and every other part is also changed. This would indicate a resonance between two coherent systems, the living matter, with the consciousness, and the electromagnetic fields that are holistic (including living matter). It should be noted that these features of biophotons characterizes animated matter as a subject of coherent states where every part is connected to every other part, constituting in this way an integrative, holistic system, he writes. Of entangled systems, I continue. Two equally coherent fields, the difference is that one of them are creating and conscious. But fields also mingle, change, computate. Where is the difference? The density alone, the degrees of freedom?

The problem is to understand how the geometric data (posititions of the objects of perceptive field and also their velocities plus other geometric data such has shapes) could be coded to frequencies. What is the spectroscpy of consciousness?, asks Pitkänen. This leads to an computation, or changing of the frequential codes, the geometry.

There are several kinds of frequencies, he says, for instance:
1. The harmonics of the fundamental frequencies assignable to causal diamonds and coming as octaves and assignable to elementary particles in zero energy ontology (the degrees of freedom/energy). Signal is received by sub-CD when the frequency corresponds to this kind of frequency so that it acts like radio receiver (resonans).
*Sub-CDs are imbedding space correlates for mental images. The frequencies f=c/T and their harmonics assignable to CD with time scale T a Lorentz transformation correspond to biologically important time scales. .1 Hz for electron and millisecond for u and d quarks. They act as resonance frequencies. Lorentz boost changes of the fundamental frequency continuously.

2. The Lorentz transformation of sub-CD representing mental image induces a scaling of these frequencies. This transformation of sub-CD changing its shape could represent the velocity of object of perceptive field by frequency coding. This is the information in the geometric structures.

3. The moduli space of CDs leads to a very precise proposal about the representation of geometric qualia. Also the earlier model for honeybee dance inspired by the observation of topologist Barbara Shipman that honeybee dance and quarks relate to each other in some mysterious manner fits with this general picture nicely. This is the coding.

Ca++ cyclotrone frequencies.
*Cyclotron frequencies: control of biological body by magnetic body, (Pitkänen). I will come back to this.

Synchronizing functions.
Proton pumps (pH), ATP.
Nawarathna et al. report on harmonic generation by budding yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in response to sinusoidal electric fields with amplitudes ranging from zero to 5 V/cm in the frequency range 10-300 Hz. The cell-generated harmonics are found to exhibit strong amplitude and frequency dependence. Sodium metavanadate, an inhibitor of the proton pump known as H+-ATPase, and glucose, a substrate of H+-ATPase, are found to increase harmonic production at low amplitudes while reducing it at large amplitudes. This P-type proton pump can be driven by an oscillatory transmembrane potential, and its nonlinear response is believed to be largely responsible for harmonic production at low frequencies in yeast cells. We find that the observed harmonics show dramatic changes with time and in their field and frequency dependence after perturbing the system by adding an inhibitor, substrate, or membrane depolarizer to the cell suspension.

Josephsons frequencies.
*Josephson frequencies assigned with Josephson junctions assignable to either cell membrane or identified as the flux tubes connecting lipids to DNA nucleotides: communication of sensory data to cell membrane from magnetic body.

Chen et al. writes: A well designed dichotomous oscillating electric field with a frequency close to the Na/K pumps' natural turnover rate can synchronize the pump molecules. Characteristics of the synchronized pumps include: (1) outward pump currents responding to Na-extrusion and inward pump currents responding to K-pumping in are separated; (2) magnitude of the outward pump currents can be up to three times higher than that of the randomly paced pump currents; (3) magnitude ratio of the outward over inward pump currents reveals the 3:2 stoichiometry of the pumps. We, further, gradually increased the field oscillating frequency in a stepwise pattern and kept pump synchronization in each step. We found that the pumps' turnover rate could be modulated up as the field frequency increased. Consequently, the pump currents significantly increased by many fold. In summary, these results show that the catalytic cycle of Na/K pumps can be synchronized and modulated by a well designed oscillating electric field resulting in activation of the pump functions.
And they continue 2008: The synchronized pump currents show separated outward and inward components, where the magnitude of the outward component is about three times the randomly-paced pump currents, and the magnitude-ratio of the outward to inward pump currents is close to 3:2, which reflects the stoichiometric ratio of the pump molecules. Once synchronized, the pumping rate is restricted to the field frequency, and the pump currents are mainly dependent on the field frequency, but not the field strength.

This can also be taken as a proof for non-dissipative transport by the solitonic nerve pulse with Josephsons currents. In 2002 Chen writes: The voltage dependence of the Na/K pump (ATPase) transient currents from skeletal muscle is similar to the steady-state I-V curve from either skeletal muscle fibers or cardiac muscles. It is a sigmoidal-shaped, asymmetric curve with respect to the membrane resting potential. This asymmetric, rectifier-like voltage dependence indicates that a symmetric oscillating membrane potential may generate a net, outward pump current. In other words, the Na/K pump molecules may be activated by an oscillating membrane potential. In a computer simulation 2008 he writes: We found that a specially designed oscillating electric field can eventually synchronize the pump molecules so that all the individual pumps run at the same pumping rate and phase as the field oscillation. They extrude Na ions during the positive half-cycle and pump in K ions during the negative half-cycle. The field can force the two ion-transports into the corresponding half-cycles, respectively, but cannot determine their detailed positions. In other words, the oscillating electric field can synchronize pumps in terms of their pumping loops but not at a specific step in the loop.

Relaxation function.
After exposure of a living system to external light illumination of different wavelengths, there happens a delayed "coupling" of biophotons when coherent nets evolve. This binds the energy in reduced states, and relax the system. The energycapacitor is ATP, DNA, carbon-structures (rings), redox-reactions, phosphorylations, phase-transitions and radical-pairs of diamagnetic-paramagnetic atoms. These changes are then almost as cellular automata?

Biological systems always display an hyperbolic relaxation to the „delayed luminescence„. This is in the case of an ergodic system (which is subject to a Poissonian distribution of the photocount statistics) a proof for perfect coherence of the biophoton field. Popp.

It should be noted that these features of biophotons characterizes animated matter as a subject of coherent states where every part is connected to every other part, constituting in this way an integrative, holistic system. Entangled states, seen in the mitotic spindle, for instance, after Popp. A "supergenome" is the result.

Mitotic figures are controlled by the coherent field of cavity resonator modes which are stabilized under the boundary conditions of the interacting matter. In this way biological systems are governed by the coherent feedback coupling of the biophoton field and matter. Mitotic figures show evidence of holistic regulation.

In this picture biological systems are squeezed in between the tendency of increase of entropy in terms of decoupling of modes (individualization, like cell growth) and coupling (holistic integration, like cell differentiation, establishing there higher states of organization), says Popp. I wonder if this are the reals contra p-adics that Pitkänen discuss as islands of life?

Living matter accumulate alpha waves in 7,5 - 13 Hz Schumann resonanses. The meridians do have the ability to transfer these resonant frequencies and reject others. Health is based on the energetic balance between organism and environment, exactly as the ancient Chinese tradidion claim. The manipulation of the needles gives too very low frequencies in alpha-region. The EEG could remain altered (relaxed) for a considerable time, from Cosic et al. 2006.

Energy distribution.
Without excitation by photons that gives activation energy (free energy) chemical reactions are made possible. It is the distribution of energy that regulates the chemical reactions. The frequency is 'put in jail' by chemical bonds. A negentropic storage of sun energy, or light, that are delayed in its transition through matter. This is also seen in a thermal delay, an entropic delay. Also as a time delay that makes our consciousness possible. The difference in entropy is seen as phase differences, transitions. Higher entropy is higher energy.

Acupuncture meridians.
In chinese acupuncture meridian theory the balance and harmony is also very important. In this context it can be described as synchronization, communication, coordination and coherence, or negentropic maximation principle. Smoothness in moving and ontology. The energizing, entropic forces are mostly the disturbing ones, coming from emotions, body functions or environment. Illness is mostly emotional or environmental. They occur together, one cannot be without the other, but their outcome should be as balanced as possible.

Pitkänen 2010: This vision adds to the standard view about brain an additional layer responsible for the sensory representations and brings in the quantum level of control (possibly from magnetic body) so that nerve pulse patterns are only part of the control loop. By activating magnetic flux tubes, massless extremals (MEs) that create coherent states of photons (reduced?, my comment) and possibly also other gauge bosons, generate magnetic quantum phase transitions, and induce supra currents, Josephson currents and Ohmic currents, provide a realization for the 'keyboard' metaphor of this brain-computer. Brain serves as central processing unit: the computations carried out are parallel computations and program modules are replaced by various self-organization patterns. p.8.

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