lördag 3 april 2010

Magnetoreceptors. Brain modelling VI.

The effects of magnetic fields have given inconclusive results. In some cases the growth is accelerated, but more often inhibated (the mitotic cycle). It also act on the metabolic rate (diffusion, migration of molecules) to complex adaptive biological processes including magnetic alignment and orientation. Cancer research has neither given any conclusive results. Sometimes a regression is seen, more often an acceleration, as if some inhibition would be taken away, often permanently (a memory function, accumulated effect?). Static fields and pulsated fields are both used, and both give effects. Those windows are different for different shapes, ages, genders, differential steps, sizes as cells, cellparts... There are a time window, and a spatial window, an entropic window and a negentropic window. A 4-D window? Moreover both electric effects and gravity effects invoke on the magnetic field. Time is very important for the function too.

Fractality and networking.
Presman also points to different functions (inhibitory for CNS) for different parts of our nervous system. CNS ought to be kept apart from peripheral nerves. In terms of subselves ('maps' = topological fractality?), seen in TGD, this maybe make sense? CNS is at a higher level than perifer nerves and autonomic nerves. It is also a phylogenetically later construction. Also different parts of CNS have different levels, with the frontal cortex at yet highest level. Is it then left or right frontal cortex that is the highest phylogenetic level? Left hemisphere has a wider network with more couplings, and Mae Wan Ho pointed to the importance of oxygen for the networks and the phylogenetic evolution. Oxygen is mostly 'in jail' in a stable triplet-molecule, but get freedom by oxidation. More branches, more differentiation, more information, is the result of the 'jail'. In lipids the C=O bonds are very important. The other signatures for life C, N, P are important for the branching, and also H, S, Fe, Ca, K, Na through their cyclotrone frequencies and resonances.

Maybe if we make these distictions the results begin to make sense?

We know very little about magnetoreception mechanisms. Magnetic fields of the properties of the geomagnetic field penetrate living matter and a receptor can thus be located anywhere in the body. Indeed, there seems to be no conclusive large organ specialized in magnetoreception, the only candidate is the pineal gland. This fact makes it very difficult to find possible magnetoreceptors and might be one reason for the very limited knowledge in this field.

Behavioural experiments have helped to characterize the magnetoreception systems in some animal groups and physiological studies have revealed some indications how animals could perceive the geomagnetic field, but with the exception of the magnetotactic bacteria, we still do not know the details of how magnetoreception works in most animals. The variety of presented magnetoreception models illustrates in how many different ways animals could perceive a magnetic field. In practice, the different models are difficult to separate, especially with behavioural studies and might not be exclusive as well. There are always a 'black box'?

At least three different principles of how animals detect magnetic fields of the strength of the Earth’s magnetic field can be distinguished. Proposed mechanisms are based on
1. permanent magnetic material like magnetite,
2. magnetically sensitive chemical reactions
3. detection of electromotive forces generated through magnetic induction.

Magnetoreception models was divided this way by Muheim in 'Animal Magnetoreception' 2001:
Biogenic magnetite
- Models based on SD magnetite
- Models based on superparamagnetic magnetite
Biochemical magnetoreception models
- Radical-pair Reactions
- Resonance Models
Induction

Quantum tools for biocontrol and -coordination.
According to Pitkänen we should distinguish also between entropic and negentropic levels. He writes in 'Quantum Model for sensory representation' p 18:
"Coordination and control are the two fundamental aspects in the functioning of the living matter. TGD suggests that at quantum level deterministic unitary time evolution of Dirac equation corresponds to coordination whereas time evolution by quantum jumps corresponds to quantum control. More precisely, the non-dissipative Josephson currents associated with weakly coupled super conductors would be the key element in coordination whereas resonant dissipative currents between weakly coupled super conductors would make possible quantum control."

Coordination, communication: superconductors,(Josephson oscillations, non-dissipative, negentropic functions)
- biological clocks, oscillators coupled to the biological activity of the organ. As clocks coordinating the brain activity, respiration and heart beat
- synchronization, the muscle contractions in various parts of heart occur in synchronized manner with well defined phase differences. Various functional disorders, as heart fibrillation, result from the loss of
- spatial coherence. And temporal coherence, I must add. Defibrillation of the heart is very much about the temporal aspects.

Control:, resonance (entropic, temporal peaks, inductors, invokes on programs for developement, enzymes.)
- biological alarm clocks are needed to tell when
- replication, the mitotic cycle rate, the proliferation degree, this is the accumulation stage, the memory stage, say when the time is ripe for the cell to replicate, hexameric rings and other rings may be of special interest
- morphogenesis, some signal (mass/energy?) must tell that it is time to begin
- differentiation to substructures during morphogenesis: for example, in case of the verterbrates the generation of somites is a very regular process starting at certain phase of development and proceeding with a clockwise precision. And I add to Pitkänens list:
The embryogenesis is one particularly sensitive developement stage. Organogenesis is more local.
Organizing centers. A signal for shape.
Phyllotaxis, is maybe one type, that is depending on dissipation (velocity differences).
-biological alarm signals, as seen in negative feedback responses (stress reactions). For this latter type the entropic message is more clear. Also plasticity, adaption to stress and changes.
- biological feed forward loops (stimulations?), seen as a preparement for action, as the bloodflow in the brain starts before the actionpotential begins. This is seen as instance in the readiness potential by Libet. Here do not belong self-organizing signals, that also can be seen as feed-forward programs.
The signal reaching the promoter first reach he signal recognition particle (SRP),where RNA is a non-coding RNA that is part of the signal recognition particle. The signal recognition particle is a universally conserved ribonucleoprotein involved in the co-translational targeting of proteins to membranes. The human genome in particular is known to contain a large amount of SRP RNA related sequence. This signal is clearly entropic.
Apoptosis.

Andersen et. al 2006. The human SRP RNA. See the many loops and hairpin structures, ideal for recieving a magnetic signal? It recognizes and targets specific proteins, pauses translation temporally. The signal sequence is eight or more nonpolar amino acid residues at its center, or six polypeptides with GTPase activity. The functional retinoic acid response element hexamer sites overlap the promoter. Retinoic acid is photon sensitive ('an eye?'). Methylation closes the eye?

I want to compare to the chinese Yin/Yang metaphor. These entropic or negentropic states are never pure, but always blended. They are also very much depending on the degrees of freedom. The holographic principle is often brought forth as some kind of solution.

Popp in his 'Biophysical aspects of the psychic situation', has an interesting wiev on this energy question for living systems.
Living systems are open systems with no energy balance, so the entropy is always maximal. Metabolic activity is dependant on temperature, but still more on the 'biophotons' for their triggering of the necessary transition states that get activation states in ELF-range. Also optical. Regulatory activity is neither chaotic, but very highly ordered with impacts on the right functions, the right time and position. But the photonic import is not high at all; one photon can handle many reactions, because is is backcreated and not longterm changed through the temperauture. One photon can trigger almost 10^9 reactions per second, provided it is synchronized (max reactions 10^5 per sec). This is also information necessary to distribute the energy in proper way; biophotons dirigate the biological functions.

One expects that the order in living matter is higher the lower the entropy,but this is then too a low energy level. How could this happen, when maximation of energy is essential for governing the dynamics? As soon as a closed system is not governed by energy conservation the entropy (or probability) grows, and it is maximized if all the available quantum states are occupied with just the same probability, instead of Bolzmann distribution. So, with increasing activation energy it is not the photons that vary, but all different energy levels contain the same numbers of photons. The energy is always enough for creation, and so there is then too a permanent photonic outflow from living matter; the matter is 'flooded' by photons and the entropy is maximized. The maximum entropy law is not violated in living matter.

The biophoton field is not heat radiation. Rather, this field stabilizes far from thermal equilibrium It corresponds to a system where phase space cells are occupied with the same probability, taking the absolute highest possible value of entropy. This distribution is far from the Boltzmann distribution of a closed system. Popp. Introduction and Physical Background.

Cooperative interactions between quantum states reduces dramatically the degrees of freedom through formation of Bose Einstein condensates and other coordinative, non-dissipative, negentropic actions. The extreme limit has only one degree of freedom, one choise, with entropy 0. So it is the degrees of freedoms that vary, the choises, not the energy. Or said in another way, the negentropic entanglements is what governs living systems. Popp say this is an ideally open system, with highest possible sensitivity, because smallest amounts of energy uptake/removal will induce dramatic changes in entropy as degrees of freedom.


Compared to the entropy S of a closed system (dotted line), the entropy S of a living system (continous line) at constant energy E is rather variable. The entropy of animated matter is always an absolute maximum, where only the number F of degrees of freedom changes between complete separation (where the entropy is even higher than for the case of thermal equilibrium) and complete coupling (where the entropy can take even the value 0). Popp, Introduction and Physical Background. This curve can quite easily be written as a sine curve, exactly as the Yin/Yang variables can be. This is one explanation of the Chi-energy? The wheel of choises.

In a music metaphor: The coordination is the string, the control is the energy moving the string?

Dissipation - non-dissipation, the chaos:order problem.
This problem is essential for the receptors and the biology. How can they distinguish the signal from the noise? How can they detect a weak change in the magnetic signal? The activation energy becomes important, and coenzymes that give a change in free energy demand (a negentropic entanglement, superposition?). Methylation would be the opposite? In this function is also some kind of memory, through the epigenetic mechanism.

Entropy is about change in energy levels, and dissipation 'eats' enegry, while negentropy and non-dissipation 'gives' or do not need energy. So one signal is a maximation of entropy, another maximation of negentropy?

Pitkänen say: "understanding the role of various frequencies in the higher level sensory representations at magnetic bodies by bringing in zero energy ontology and causal diamonds, hierarchy of Planck constants, and negentropic entanglement". And "In zero energy ontology zero energy state is quantum superposition over states with different energies of the positive energy state and of coherent state of Cooper pairs, thermal equilibra are squared roots of energy states. the energy feed to the system means that the quantum superposition changes in such a manner that the average energy of the positive energy state increases. This excites new degrees of freedom and makes the system more complex. The dissipation caused by quantum jumps reducing entanglement entropy tends to reduce the average energy and this tendency is compensated by the energy feed selecting also the most stable self-organization pattern as a flow equilibrium."

Zero energy ontology could be understood as this oscillation between entropy and negentropy states, the change in the degrees of freedom? See the updated version of Quantum Model of Sensory Representations.

The sensory representation would be a higher level signal, an entangled, negentropic signal? How would it look like? What would bring in the negentropy?

Mae Wan Ho writes in her Biological theory of everything: "branching structures are optimised for their task, maximising the area across which they can take up and release resources and minimising the energy needed to transport those resources through the organism. Mathematically, such networks have fractal, self-similar geometry, i.e., they have fractional dimensions between the usual 1, 2, or 3; and the same or similar structure over many scales, from less than a micron to tens of metres.

Filling a three-dimensional volume with a network that maximises surface area available for capturing and releasing resources creates a four-dimensional geometric entity, and that is essentially why biological variables scale as quarter powers of the body weight.

It is interesting that self-similar fractal networks give minimum energy dissipation."
She proposed that organic space-time is fractal because it optimises energy transfer, based on thermodynamic arguments "Why are organisms so complex?"

... found that metabolic rates, expressed per unit body weight, and plotted against temperature, resulted in very similar straight lines across the whole range of species. Data from 250 species, including copepods, sycamores, bananas, peas and fish were plotted, and each species closely resembled all the others, revealing a universal metabolic rate.

Actually, they did not all have exactly the same resting metabolic rate, but the maximum difference separating any of the groups, is only about 20-fold. This is smaller than the variation in metabolic rate that can occur between exercise and rest in a single organism.


Life of islands? That have to be fractal and p-adic by force? Great.


References.
Jose' M. R. DELGADO, JOCELYNE LEAL, Jose' LUIS MONTEAGUDO AND MANUEL GARCi'A GRACIA, 1982: Embryological changes induced by weak, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. J. Anat. (1982), 134, 3, pp. 533-551. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1167891/pdf/janat00219-0119.pdf

Mae Wan Ho, 2004: Biology’s Theory of Everything? ISIS Report 01/02/04. http://www.i-sis.org.uk/biologysTheoryOfEverything.php

Mae Wan Ho, 2009: Living with oxygen. ISIS. Report 08/06/09 http://www.i-sis.org.uk/livingWithOxygen.php

Rachel Muheim 2001: Animal Magnetoreception - Models, Physiology and Behaviour. Lund. http://www.angel.ekol.lu.se/~rachel/publications/Introductory%20Paper%20def.pdf

M. Pitkänen 2010: Quantum model for sensory representations, in: TGD INSPIRED THEORY OF CONSCIOUSNESS, PART I: BASIC IDEAS OF TGD INSPIRED THEORY OF CONSCIOUSNESS.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdconsc/tgdconsc.html#expc

Fritz-Albert Popp, Biophysical Aspects of the Psychic Situation. International Institute of Biophysics (Biophotonics). http://www.lifescientists.de/ib0203e_1.htm (out of function)

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