måndag 12 april 2010

Stress and relax. The extracellular matrix. Brain modelling VIII b.

Living bodies cannot store energy as heat. They are no real thermodynamical things, but they will still have to store the energy in other ways, and the only possible solution is to store it as bondings, organization, coherence (degrees of freedom is collapsed). Then the priority is in stable bondings and things that can ineract and give off their energy at demand. An energy store, more longlasting than the ATP-production, that also is an accommodation and relaxation. Also movement can have a relaxating effect (short time) in this sense, although the tension (especially longterm) often increase the energy. The metabolic energy balance between sugars and lipids are well known. The lipids for vertebrates are very often stored as saturated lipids, with very few C=C bondings. The degree of carbon double bondings is one measure of stable energy storage, also many body systems; another is oxygen, which is stable in reduced form, with no magnetic interference. Water and its chrystal structure, chiral molecules, metal ions etc. are also important. Polarized light and sound even.

Water is extremely important and a more complete molecular description of the liquid and solid phases of water, including an accurate universal force field,is described in 'Water clusters: Untangling the mysteries of the liquid, one molecule at a time'. It is clear that the hydrogen bond network and its fluctuations and rearrangement dynamics determine the properties of water.

The water dimer exhibits three distinct low barrier quantum tunneling pathways that rearrange the hydrogen bonding pattern. Acceptor switching (AS), having the lowest barrier of all tunneling motions estimated at 157 cm−1 by VRT(ASP-W), is the most facile tunneling motion. This tunneling pathway exchanges the two protons in the hydrogen bond acceptor monomer. After Keutsch & Saykally 2001.

The water trimer is a much more rigid structure than the dimer, bound by three strained H-bonds. It has a chiral cyclic equilibrium structure. There is also a water tetramer that is highly symmetric and requires highly concerted tunneling motions and limits the number of degenerate minima that can be connected on the intermolecular potential surface via feasible tunneling motions to two. The water pentamer is chiral, and the hexamer has a cage structure with the oxygens forming a distorted octahedron. A cyclic hexamer form has also been seen. A vibration-rotation-tunneling band is indicated by a chiral six-membered ring structure with rapid quantum tunneling occurring between the enantiomers. The observed vibration involves torsional motion of the water subunits about each hydrogen bond axis.

The interpretation of recent dielectric relaxation measurements has even suggested that water molecules making only two hydrogen bonds might be of special importance for bulk dynamics. Excitation induces hydrogen bond breaking, and hydrogen bonds are extremely important in biology (dissociation energy).

Impacts on photosynthetic PSI cyclic electron transport rates could account for observed variability in quantum yields for oxygen evolution and some variability in quantum yields for carbon fixation. Similarly, enzymatic processes associated with organic carbon synthesis appeared to be variably dependent on spectral growth irradiances and contributing to the observed variability in quantum yields for carbon fixation.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important players in mediating quantum dot (QD)-induced cellular damage and apoptosis. The mechanism involves QD generation of ROS in the extracellular environment and intracellularly. These ROS can cause plasma membrane damage and intracellular organelle damage; mitochondria are the first to be affected in metabolism (decreased cytochrom c levels), and they appear to be the most sensitive organelles. Different surface molecules provide a different degree of protection, and they act as a barrier to oxygen, protons, or hole traps. Oxidative stress is also an important factor in ageing. Exessive NO is an important signalling mediator behind neurological disorders, but oxidative functions of ROS maybe also can be seen as an energy pool, as instance in the nerve system.

Noise, information and stress .
The electromagnetic interference, or noise, comes from our own body, but also from environment (nature and nurture), and make up the perceptions too. The excess is experienced as stress, the part that cannot be entangled with anything, that has no meaning. Without entanglement it gives dissipation and maybe de-entanglement (negative negentropy). Coherent storage have a higher priority, also networks, and highest of all the fractal and topological networks seen in maps ('homunculus' - type, but I prefer to talk of body maps in a topological way) that can interfere with each other, as mirror images, also at long distances. This is very often seen in medicine (referred pain). Take a heart attach as example. It engages the whole body, and the surroundings too. Take a fobia attack, a stroke, even common flue. It is the whole body that are sick. In medicine we talk of system diseases, or syndromas.

The most coherent of all is the whole, synergetic (in time) body that interfere with the surroundings and minimize the dissipation that will follow. That is true biological holism, a true maximation of the negentropy. The resistance/dissipation is minimized. The same as could be seen in quantum tunnelling in water. The fight is minimized. How could we even think that Darwin was right? Or he is partly right. The fight is so unpleasant that we do anything to avoid it. Even change the species preferences, the niches, if needed.

A way to minimize the resistance is to build networks. And a very important network is the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this way biological systems are capable to join termodynamic entropy and informational entropy as a stress-relaxing mechanism. This means growing, and death. I see I will have to look at the entropy aspect closer in later postings.

Synergetism is a minimized dissipation Synergies are produced (as an emergent charachter?) when many elements or parts combine to produce distinctive/differently new 'wholes'. Indeed, complex living systems represent a multi-leveled, multi-faceted hierarchy of synergistic effects. Synergism is about self-organizing charachters and life is creating itself, also reproducing itself, as a consequence of inherent properties in the energy landscape. Erwin Schrödinger’s legendary book “What is Life?” (1945) said the most important physical property of life was its thermodynamic foundation. Living systems are distinctive in that they create thermodynamic order, is a multi-level phenomenon and new properties and even new principles arise at higher levels of “agglomeration” and organization. Life evolve. Such are its dynamic goal-directedness, purpose and survival strategies; partially 'independent' of other physical systems. Living systems have an internally-defined teleology, kind of a 'black box', can do conscious choice-making decisions to adapt and diminish the dissipation. The most advanced is the transcendent cultural achievements of humankind. Corning talks of the Synergism Hypothesis, in effect an 'bioeconomic' theory of complexity. Its result is cooperation and sociability, as opposed to competition in Darwins evolution. Co-operative/symbiotic processes involve the environment. Operative processes are controlling and regulating processes. Control isn't always endogenic. Large-scale, sophisticated cooperative efforts keep bacterial colonys together, direct the motor output of fish stims, synchronize the brain waves in jazz musicians, coordinate the metabolic activities in groups etc. Specialization (negentropy) facilitates growth. Also learning is growth. Energy is directed towards growth and a more effecient machinery (work better together than alone). Can this be a relation of dissipation (energy demand) and co-operation (energy 'production' or 'saving'). Larger size also means a lower energy demand. Integrated multicellular, hierarchial bodies express a synergy of scale, different hierarchial levels have different charachters. Chrystallization around a nuclei of a critical size (an organising center) and tool using is such characters, that have different degrees only. Language is another. Memory too, in close connection to consciousness.

The whole is more effective than its parts, and gives an adaptive unification (entanglement). The boundaries between two systems are more energetic, and have a higher dissipation. Unification of boundaries 'produce' energy. Also timing of the unification is important. A very rapid unification 'produce' energy very fast, and give lesser chances to adaptation and differentation, and consequently the energy level is lower. To get a high energy level there must be a time-lag between the energy'production' and the relaxation. Energy must be stored. This also gives a flexibility into the system. There are a dynamic balance between expansive (growing) and constraining processes by allowing varying degrees of communication between cell and extracellular matrix. Critical to this balance are both the deformability and permeability of the boundaries, which determine the shapes assumed by cells and patterns of uptake, loss and passage of resources. Associations related to the boundaries (as the cell membrane and microtubulis in the cytoskeleton) can change this relation. Degrees of Freedom: Living in Dynamic Boundaries,is a good book to study these things.

Synergism is the result of oscillations that are controlled well. The living system is an open one, and everything that disturbs the balance (energy input) is dissipation. Some of the disturbances are called control signals, because the system need some energy input, otherwise death follow, and if the dissipation/control signals give still higher dissipation it is called allostasis (a standing wave?). Is the stress even higher the living system will break down and disease follow. Also disease can in this aspect be seen as an allostatic control signal. Death is also an control signal, a feed forward signal, as apoptosis. A destruction of an hierarchy level.

Also everyday activities as eating is a dissipation, as is hearing, seeing, touching, etc. All these are percieved electromagnetically, also touch through mecanoreceptors. Food? I don't know. Maybe the cyclotrone resonances, the radical production. So we also have perceptions for those things, and it's energy can also be too much, or too low, and be pecieved as stress, or only as control. There are no fixed treshold values, they are moving forth and back all the time, following the sensitivity. The pain treshold moving according to mood and stresslevel is a good example. Also the connective tissue and nerve cells have changing sensitivities. Our tissues accumulate energy and have a memory.

In essence this is the anabolic (negentropic) and catabolic (entropic) reactions. Everything depends on your starting point. Everything is energy, but in different forms. Energetically our body is not isolated from the surroundings, but a part of it. In the environment are 'transparent windows' for cosmic radiation, and this radiation will reach us. Especially much radiation in the mm-range do hit us. Magnetic frequencies transverse our bodies also and invoke by resonance. And we live in a gravity field.

Yin and Yang.
But we need also this energy influx as Popp showed, for the organizing, the diminishing of the degrees of freedom, for the quantum criticality. Living systems are constructed to handle dissipation. This follow also the traditional chinese medical philosophy very tightly, but there are other elements too, and environment. Everything must be balanced, at a higher energy level from the surroundings. I really am fond of this picture of Yin and Yang. It can perhaps best be described by interaction, so that in Yang (the material bondings, the negentropy), are always having a seed to change, as Yin, (the energy, the dissipation). Yin turns into Yang by relaxation (organization, homeostasis, energy conservation) and Yang turns into Yin by stress (allostasis, energy production seen in gluconeogenes as instance). An entropy-based model is also described by Kang et al. 2007.

Quantum biology. Stress adaption and accumulation..
Because the interaction of energy/stress with matter, have also immaterial aspects as coherence, visiability, communication, cognition, memory, consciousness, and other immaterial aspects to be energycoded somehow. The relation between dissipation and frequency express this interaction? There are 'windows' of 'effeciency' or 'economy'? This is maximal adaptation or balance? A maximation of entanglement for a smooth result. But also a senitiveness for interactions,otherwise there would be no response of the control signals. Maybe it is the sensitiveness (deformations) that most of all charachter life. Sensitiveness is also criticality. Quantum critical universe is in a well defi ned sense the most intelligent and interesting universe. Criticality is by the de nition something unstable. Situation changes if the fundamental constant of Nature is analogous to critical temperature. The coupling strength (geometry) is analog to the critical temperature, and both types of entropies can be interacting. This (TGD) is so different from string theory.

Except temperature there are a lot of other windows determining the criticality. Acidity is one of the strongest.

Pitkänen writes:
Spin glass analogy could be regarded as one aspect of quantum criticality and states the TGD universe can be regarded as quantum spin glass. Quantum spin glass is phenomenologically characterized by its fractal energy landscape containing valleys inside valleys inside valleys giving rise to extremely complicated system. Quantum self-organization can be described as motion in this kind of energy landscape. p-Adicity can be regarded as one aspect of the quantum spin glassiness. Bio-system as a self-organizing quantum critical spin glass together with the notion of many-sheeted space-time provides rather restrictive general guide line for attempts to construct a general theory of bio-control and -coordination.

The spin aspect also give supraconduction and minimized dissipation, seen as instance in the nerve pulse. The spin can be stored by strain.

Optics and chirality.
The final explanation is in form of quantum optics (QCD), say Popp 2001. There are factors as spatial space and momentum space that give 'possibilities' (potential information) in stored energy (memory = stored 'time'), and quantum energy as direction, vector and spin, and propagation gives stress adaption in actual photon intensity. The derivation from thermal equilibrum is the adaption, the relaxation (= the heat that is not expressed in temp. but fixed otherwise). "Noether's Theorem" says: The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light. Vertebrates has a higher energy level than amphibians. Birds has a higher energy level than vertebrates (body size has also an impact). Popp express the same thing as: 'biological systems use sun energy to build up high-density informational stores, which delay the thermal dissipation and a time lag.' There must be a resonator that can catch the energy. There is also a delayed illuminescence from cells, expressed as relaxation time (in msec to sec). This means either that the reaction also can go backwards, or there are an active emission of light. This emission correlates with growth (organizational capacity). This means that organization in living system is not based on 'nearest neighbour interactions' as in solids, but on entanglement, that every part is connected to every other part interpreted as a 'supergenome'. Fluctuations around this organization/entanglement maximum state (organising centers?) can be seen as entropy fluctuations and have regulatory activity. In seedlings the logaritmic growth show strong organization (genetic?) and is very sensitive to disturbances (control) and correlate with biophoton emission (genome activity). Tumor cells have strong induced emission. The delayed emission is relaxing too (energy is given off). The capacity of the biophoton emission display destructive interference for the extracellular space, and constructive interference within the cells. The cell acts differently than its surroundings.

Charles Shang says:
It is well known that all the physiological systems, including nervous system, are derived from a system of embryogenesis - a growth control system. In growth control, the fate of a larger region is frequently controlled by a small group of cells, which is termed an organizing center or organizer. A gradient of messenger molecules called morphogens forms around organizers.

Current acupuncture research suggests a convergence of the neurophysiology model, the connective tissue model and the growth control model. The growth control model of acupuncture set the first example of a biological model in integrative medicine with significant prediction power across multiple disciplines.

Wave character and quantum character of acupuncture systems from Li et al. 2008, showed that acupuncture meridians are quantal. The scientists looked at the sensation propagation (SQUID) in acupuncture meridian system and found:
- transport along meridian shows a wave pattern of acupuncture with three basic waves, namely 250 sec, 200 sec and 150 sec; the wave character of meridian as from standing waves
- the magnetic spectrum on acupuncture meridian is quite stable with peaks of 12-14 Hz and 28 Hz, strong and almost time-independent
- reveals the big jump of acupuncture meridians from original places to some completely different roads, as big as the electrons jump from some original orbits to some other orbits, when a person is in some abnormal state. It also reveals the quantum character of acupuncture system.

Zhang says:
the objective measurements of physics into acupuncture are quite successful with good reproducibility, in particular the electrical and acoustic measurements. A further study into the background of these results reveals an invisible and dynamic dissipative structure of electromagnetic field, which generally exists in all living systems, which has a lot to do with some mysterious old medicine as acupuncture meridians, charkas and homoeopathy. What is more, a scientific and quantitative way of evaluating the degree of coherence in living systems is developed during the research of the electric measurement on human body.

Memory on cell - level.
Memory is stored time, moments, strain. Consciousness is the process that transforms the actual time into potential, stored time, actual information into potential information, as 'stories' and that we call memories. Potential information is also about all possibilities, and about stored energy, that is organization, networks, and that storage must not be allowed to decay rapidly with time (a time lag, stability). Consciousness needs memory, and stable organization. If we take a higher level of organization, the networks grow in complexity, until finally every particle of a system is connected to every other part of the system. This part can be a cell, an organ, a bodypart etc. Then we have optimal communication. Further increase in complexity needs a decoherence, a break down first. We have theoretically infinite memory, because the information is kept in its original event, and there are relaxation. Because the event are stored, their origin of the actual event is never forgotten either. These stored moments as stored energy accumulate and give stress in the body if the relaxation is not efficient. Memory is important for holography as a glue.

The living matrix.
Chen 1996:
An existing model of the electrical properties of the skin has been the accepted scientific standard for decades. But this model is based entirely on mechanistic principles and it fails to explain many biological phenomena, particularly those relating to acupuncture points and meridians. A new model is developed which, unlike the standard model, includes an active biological response and the fact that the electricity passes though different types of tissue, not just skin.

Oschman (2009) says:
"The living matrix is defined as the continuous molecular fabric of the organism, consisting of fascia, the other connective tissues, extracellular matrices, integrins, cytoskeletons, nuclear matrices and DNA. The extracellular, cellular and nuclear biopolymers or ground substances constitute a body-wide reservoir of charge that can maintain electrical homeostasis (electrostasis?) and 'inflammatory preparedness' throughout the organism. Recent research has emphasized the significance of charge transfer in relation to the scavenging or neutralization of free radicals delivered to sites of injury during and after the oxidative burst. Evidence comes from studies of the role of electrons in mitigating the consequences of inflammation when living systems are connected to the earth (earthing)."
So the body do harm to itself? The same happen to muscle cells during fierceful movements. Also the acupuncture procedure (needle grasp) do harm to the connective tisue in rearrangeging the fibers (Langevin & Yandow 2002). This effect is not restricted to the acupunctures only, but it is stronger/amplified there. Acupuncture points are 'sites of convergence' in a network of connective tissue, where the meridians are 'highways'. Any point outside the network is a 'secondary way'. The connective tissue is a fascia - arch enspanning the whole body, says Upledger. The needling produce cellular changes that propagate along the meridian connective tissue plane. The anatomy of the meridians and acupoints are collagen fiber alignment amplifying the signal. Becker (in the Body electric) talked of acupoints as boost function points that amplified the DC-signal.

Any injury, large or small, results in an oxidative burst in which neutrophils and other white blood cells deliver highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to the region to destroy pathogens and to break down damaged cells and tissues. Becker told of a 'current of injury' that made the signal in nerve axonal transport as an DC-signal, activating the nerve in epidermis-nerve junctional points. Trigger points are focal points (necroses) too. Necroses are also common in toes and finger tips where the most important signalling acupuntures ends.

There are evidence that at least some of the meridians represent low resistance pathways for the conduction of electricity, and it happens through an 'electrical synapses' pathway. Electrons can also act as relaxatants when they 'neutralize' the diamagnetic - paramagnetic differences in radicals. That way electrons are antioxidants too? Is this the pi-stack phenomen seen in chromosomes and the supraconduction in nerve pulse? The EMG emission seen as a phantom?

Improved sleep, pain reduction and rapid healing effects on inflammation are seen as negative charges (free electrons) neutralize free radicals that contribute to chronic health problems. Such health issues can arise from either 'silent inflammation' from old injuries that have not fully resolved, or from the observable symptoms of inflammation: heat (measurable by medical infrared imaging), redness, pain, reduced range of motion at joints and swelling.

Conductive pathways from the skin surface to the tissues and organs throughout the body, and in the opposite direction, has significance for the selfhealing capacity. While skin has a finite resistance, it is clearly not an insulator, and low impedance points have been identified on the skin. Some of these are acupoints, and there is evidence that some of these points are electrically coupled to specific organs (Chen, 1996; Major, 2007). The autonomous nerve system is linked with trigger points (Travell and Simons) and maybe with acupuncture points too. Dura mater and Pia mater is especially interesting in this context, as we shall see later. A control current circuitry formed by collagen network, as suggested by Mae Wan Ho.

The need for a faster mechanism of charge transfer shows up dramatically in peak athletic or artistic performances involving perception and movement that is far too rapid to be explained by slow moving nerve impulses, diffusion of regulatory molecules and chemical reactions rate-limited by diffusion. Athletic events can result in acute injuries, and there is strong motivation for rapid healing so the athlete can re-enter the competition. Experience with elite athletes has repeatedly documented remarkably quick recovery when the injured part of the body is electrically coupled to the earth, and when the athlete is subsequently connected to the earth during sleep and recovery (earthing). Electrons have super highways extending the body?

Stress relaxation in biological tissues.
Stress relaxation is a property of biological tissues that is related to their viscoelastic properties. The stress-strain relationships for a spring and biological tissues such as a blood vessel and bladder can be compared. When a spring is stretched (increased strain applied), the tension (stress) that is generated is proportional to the change in length. Furthermore, the developed tension remains almost constant over time (declines a small amount over time). This decline in pressure (stress) over time at a constant volume (strain) is termed "stress relaxation." That pressure falls while the volume remains constant can be explained by the Law of LaPlace, where wall tension (T) is proportional to pressure (P) times radius (r). When this expression is rearranged and solved for pressure, then P = T/r. Therefore, pressure can fall at constant radius (or volume) if wall tension decreases over time, and this is what occurs during stress relaxation. If an analogous experiment were performed on the bladder (mostly smooth muscle), the stress relaxation would be much greater and occur more rapidly, while a tendon that is primarily composed of collagen shows virtually no stress relaxation. Therefore, different biological tissues display different degrees of stress relaxation. The associative network is extreemly important for the relaxation, seen in the light of muscular dystrophy, where the microtubulis are detached from the cell membrane.

The ability to display stress relaxation is related to the biological function of the different tissues. The bladder must have a good relaxation that gives only a small increase in pressure, while aorta need a resistence to be able to keep up the blood pressure. Because they are viscoelastic, polymers behave in a nonlinear fashion. This nonlinearity is described by both stress relaxation and a phenomenon known as creep, which describes how polymers strain under constant stress.

The following non-material parameters all affect stress relaxation in polymers:
• Magnitude of initial loading
• Speed of loading
• Temperature (isothermal vs non-isothermal conditions)
• Loading medium
• Friction and wear
• Long-term storage

Time dependent effects indicate that the stress-strain behavior of a material will change with time. The classic material model for time dependent effects is viscoelasticity. As the name implies, viscoelasticity incorporates aspects of both fluid behavior (viscous) and solid behavior (elastic).

Most notably, we know that elastic materials store 100% of the energy due to deformation. However, viscoelastic materials do not store 100% of the energy under deformation, but actually lose or dissipate some of this energy. This dissipation is also known as hysteresis. Hysteresis explicitly requires that the loading portion of the stress strain curve must be higher than the unloading curve. The ability to dissipate energy is one of the main properties of viscoelastic materials. The two other main characteristics associated with viscoelastic materials are stress relaxation and creep. Creep is in some sense the inverse of stress relaxation, and refers to the general characteristic of viscoelastic materials to undergo increased deformation under a constant stress. In comparison, elastic materials do not exhibit energy dissipation or hysteresis as their loading and unloading curve is the same. Indeed, the fact that all energy due to deformation is stored is a characteristic of elastic materials.

Extracellular Matrix and adaptation.
Kjær, Michael wrote in 'Role of Extracellular Matrix in Adaptation of Tendon and Skeletal Muscle to Mechanical Loading,' that
'The extracellular matrix (ECM), and especially the connective tissue with its collagen, links tissues of the body together and plays an important role in the force transmission and tissue structure maintenance especially in tendons, ligaments, bone, and muscle. The ECM turnover is influenced by physical activity, and both collagen synthesis and degrading metalloprotease enzymes increase with mechanical loading.'

Liboff 2004, ends up with two postulates:
1. Every living organism is completely described by an electromagnetic field vector Po that is specifically determined by a transformation from the genome.
2. All pathologies, abnormalities and traumas are manifested by deviations from the normal field Po, and, within limits, these deviations are compensated for by the homeostatic tendency of the system to return to Po. (pi noll)

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