måndag 26 april 2010

Schrödingers cat. Dead and alive, body and mind.

The cat is in superposition, both dead and alive? A really good explination here of this complex problem.

Life is quantum mechanical? More and more evidence is accumulating. In a sense it would be the most natural explanation for our experiencies, the mind-body problem. It would even explain death as phenomen. In everyday life there are so many questions that would belong to our quantum being mirror. Perceptions, muscle work, nerve functioning, cell membrane functionings, chromosome functions, everything else but not brain (cortex?). In the ancient medicine brain was not considered as important at all, and maybe there is a point. Our brain is so very overestimated.

The acupuncture meridians make us living?, says Rakovic.
The acupuncture system is the only macroscopic quantum system in our body (while brain still seems not to be). This is the reason that consciousness is related to its MW ultralow-frequency-modulated EM field of the acupuncture system.

What is life?
Life is an ability to be deformed, stressed, and still be able to take back the former shape and function. Life is sensitiveness, perhaps most of all, and an ability to react on the stress. Life is growing, learning, accumulation of stress in memory, and an capacity to create new meaning from nonsense noise, through an ability to recognize patterns and codes (information).

If we compare to a piece of viscoelastic gel with a communicative system, what is the main difference? Both can be deformed, stressed, both can grow, both can perhaps learn something if the accumulation of energy is a 'memory'. But the gel cannot create something new out of old structures? The creeping can perhaps be seen as something new? The inherent self-organization? No, it is seen in viruses, proteins, etc. The replication? Can a replication be non-living? I think so, if the chrystallization is taken for a simple replication (many would not agree in this).

The main difference is the sensitivity for stress, and the fast relaxation, but still with a natural inertia inherent to the system (dissipative structure), creating a sence of coherence, consciousness, self and time. The coherence favour survival and it can extend also outside the organism to a superorganism, and a community. The only real big difference is the inertia and the delayed dissipation, together with superconduction minimized dissipation. 'I can decide, I feel myself a creator'. Time and consciousness belongs together very tightly. Time is measured in frequencies of dissipation? In a sence time is dissipation.

So, we have one system for creating dissipation (a string) and one for no dissipation (the bullet) at the same time. A string, for the robustness and criticality, a bullet for the possibilities and uncertainity, matter and wave. Is the Schrödinger cat both dead and alive at the same time? Are we real quantum mechanical beings?

The creation of complex superpositions in harmonic systems (such as the motional state of trapped ions, microwave resonators or optical cavities) has presented a significant challenge because it cannot be achieved with classical control signals here So, are the control then quantal?

Mae Wan Ho writes:
The vital energy, qi, of traditional Chinese medicine corresponds to coherent energy in living organisms, which is stored everywhere over the entire range of space-times. Consequently any subtle influence arising anywhere will propagate throughout the system and become amplified into global effects. In other words, the system, by virtue of being full of coherent energy, will be ultra-sensitive to very weak signals; and this may be the basis of all forms of subtle energy medicine including acupuncture.
The energy is the string, the coherence is the bullet?

She continues:
...instantaneous, noiseless intercommunication that enables the organism to function as a perfectly coordinated whole because it is liquid crystalline, containing 70% by weight of water, permeates throughout the connective tissues and into the interior of every single cell. The water molecules are aligned in ordered layers along the extensive surfaces of macromolecules and are an integral part of the liquid crystalline continuum. It makes the living matrix highly responsive to changes in pressure, temperature, pH, and electrical polarization. The ordered layers of water in the matrix also support a special kind of 'jump conduction' of protons (positive ion) that is much faster than nerve conduction and faster than ordinary electrical conduction through wires.
The macromolecules are the string, the coherent water (supraconduction?) the bullet.

Ho and Knight proposed as one of the first that the dynamically ordered layers of water molecules (bullet) associated with the oriented collagen fibres in the connective tissues (string) correspond to the acupuncture meridians, while acupuncture points correspond to gaps or junctions between the meridians (collagen fibres or connective tissue bundles).

Jumping charge of protons, that can be interpreted as magnetic holes? Are the charge induced from outside? These 'waves of holes' has a meaning for the DC-electricity, as well as 'waves of tops'; the electrons. (In spintronics even 'waves of spin' happen.)

The network effect of the tunneling between the 'patterns' is a stochastic process, the well-known 'random walk' process. The tunneling can interfere with the diff erent stochastic processes, and are eg. an activation process, and relaxing the inertia (velocity/time).

Acupuncture meridians have a double oscillating function.
Dejan Rakovic 2001:
Biophysical bases for acupunture based medicine is its resonance microwave/ultralowfrequency (MW/ULF) electromagnetic/ionic nature, as well as the quantum holographic 'electro-optical' neural-network-like-function of the acupuncture system, that is psychosomatically disordered, at the same time as the non-treshold gap-junction based self-assembling of the acupuncture system explains the extreme sensitivity on external MW/ULF EM fields.
The ionic acupuncture currents are both MW and ULF, and the longer, latter modulates MW, exactly as the windows in tissue interactions with weak EM fields. The resonance ULF (about 4 Hz) stimulate the endorphin mechanism, and the resonant MW (50 - 80 GHz) is efficient even in serious diseases. Earlier we saw that the meridians was capable to accumulate there resonant frequencies in the alpha region.

Rakovic cont.:
Acupuncture system is a dynamic structure differentiated at the locations of maxima loci of 3-D standing waves, formed as a result of coherent MW-reflexive Fröhlich excitations (up to about 100 GHz from 50 - 70 GHz) of molecular subunits in the cell membranes, proteins, microtubulis, etc. Differentiation of gap junctions with a higher density in acupuncture points (through which an evolutionary older type of inter-cell communications is achieved, including acupuncture, whose conductivity can be modulated by intra-cell pH-factor, Ca2+-ions, neurotransmitters and second messengers - and even by voltage), are slightly sensitive to voltage.
These gap junctions may function together as a 'superorganism-like' 'amplifying' junctions. Kind of a 'highway' or a zone.

Two different functions for nerve nets.
Neural and other associative nets can be seen as a deterministic system which assumes that the information processing (the dynamics) of the neural nets bears the classic-physical reality, determinism and locality. Or they can be modelled quantum-mechanically (solitonic). Or both. As the classic-physical systems, and with the quantum-mechanical corrections to their deterministic dynamics, coming from the well-known e ffect of quantum-mechanical tunnelling. It is the border territory between quantum world and classical world.

Quantum-mechanical tunneling in associative neural networks, describes the meridians as kind of 'random walk structures', requiring no energy exchange.
Being the relatively stable minima of the 'configuration-energy' space of the networks, the 'patterns' represent the macroscopically distinguishable states of the neural nets. Therefore, the tunneling represents a macroscopic quantum e ffect, but with some special characteristics. Particularly, we investigate the tunneling between the minima of approximately equal depth, thus requiring no energy exchange. If there are at least a few such minima, the tunneling represents a sort of the 'random walk' process, which implies the quantum fluctuations in the system, and therefore 'malfunctioning' in the information processing of the nets. Due to the finite number of the minima, the 'random walk' reduces to a dynamics. the quantum fluctuations due to the quantum-mechanical tunneling can be 'minimized' if the 'pattern'-formation is such that there are mutually 'distant' groups of the 'patterns', thus providing the 'zone' structure of the 'pattern' formation.

The black ball represents the 'particle' oscillating with a frequency around the bottom of the well. The presented 'con guration energy (q − V )' surface represents the 'patterns' {welldefi ned, macroscopically distinguishable physical states of the nets. Entropy represents a measure of ignorance about the physical state of the system. The density matrix is the knowledge, which represent the mutually distinguishable (i.e., orthogonal) states. That is, entropy is a measure of the classical indeterminism: a system is in a de finite state, but the state is not known with certainty, and increase of entropy coincides with the loss of the informations concerning the physical state of the system. In what state the system can be found {probabilistically) is measured by entropy (von Neumans entropy). The zones and wells need not to follow each other.

The healthy state.
Nature wants to be robust by 'minimizing' the quantum fluctuations due to the tunnelling. No disturbing jumps that distort the cell machinery! But the big number of the minima and their high 'density' or zones are necessary for enhancing the memory capabilities and conscious experience of the nets. The 'zone' structure is mutually distant groups of not-very-numerous densely packed minima, between which the information can jump.

Healthy state might be considered as an absolute minimum (ground state) of the non-local self-consistent macroscopic quantum potential of the organism (energy potential between the max and min degrees of freedom, stable and unstable conditions, in Popps terms); disorders corresponding to higher minima of the spatio-temporal changeable potential hypersurface in energy configuration (stressed condition) explains the higher sensory responses of the more excited acupuncture system. This is very close to an associative neural network and to pattern recognition as convergence of the neural networks to the bottoms of the potential hypersurface, being the attractors of neural networks memory patterns.

There are the two diff erent levels of the influence of the environment.
A. The e ffect of decoherence (decay), which destroys the quantummechanical coherence on a very short time scale. Quantum states inevitably decay with time into a probabilistic mixture of classical states.
B. The influence of the environment on the (approximately) deterministic behavior of the system {which has previously 'survived' the decoherence).

A mechanical non-living system is cooled (superconduction) to its quantum ground state, where all classical noise is eliminated. But in living systems noise cannot be eliminated.

Lubos also points out an important factor:
Von Neumann and Wigner actually argued that everything – including the macroscopic objects – evolves according to the Schrödinger equation, and the “collapse” is only done when you actually want to observe something which requires consciousness. Alternatively, you may imagine that even other people evolve into strange linear superpositions and it is just you who has the right to make the wavefunction collapse.

This has led to the anthrophic principle, evidently wrong, but in essence this statement is right. It is consciousness that collapse the random wave. This has been seen in PSI-research so many times.

September 10, 2009, a discussion on the Physics arXiv Blog
How to Create Quantum Superpositions of Living Things. Scientists try to create a quantum superposition of a living thing, such as a virus. The experiment will first involve storing a virus in a vacuum and then cooling it to its quantum mechanical ground state in a microcavity. Zapping the virus with a laser then leaves it in a superposition of the ground state and an excited one.

What could lead to the quantum ground state of a virus? The virus have the structure for it. Maybe it is because the host has a disorganized 'field' that viruses can attack?

But seen in the light of above Nature has not gone this path. In Nature it is the surroundings and the organism that do the constraints. The object is allowed to oscillate and have 'noise'.

The necessity for application of Microwave Resonance Therapy (MRT) upon acupuncture points was discovered only in the early 1980's (Sit'ko et al in Kiev) as appearance of sharply-resonant characteristic eigenfrequencies of human organism - which successfully stimulated development of the second generation of coherent, the third generation of noise spectrum MW generators, and finally fourth generation of noise spectrum Controlled Energy Materials (CEM) MW generators with changeable therapeutic oscillators in mid-2000's. The coherent spectrum MW generators with manually changeable frequency (from 52 to 70 GHz) are far less suitable in practice, because of much longer seeking of the resonant frequency, dependent on individual properties of the organism and the subjective state of the patient, which can result in therapeutic mistakes and overdosing. On the other hand, the noise spectrum MW generators enable simultaneous excitation of all possibly therapeutic resonance MW frequencies (52-78 GHz), and an organism continuously resonantly responds to currently appropriate (and changeable during therapy) frequency. Finally, the noise spectrum CEM MW generators with changeable therapeutic oscillators provide unique possibility to initially record an biologically-active-zone (BAZ) MW spectrum (biologically resonant in both frequency and intensity) by BAZ-influenced changeable oscillator, and subsequently to re-emit the BAZ MW spectrum by the oscillator in this very zone - thus enabling resonant shallowing of the acupuncture disordered state in favor of deepening of the attracting acupuncture healthy state.

By affecting the appropriate acupuncture points by MRT generators, remarkable clinical results of the treatment are being achieved in the prevention and therapy of stress, as well as in many psychosomatic disorders (cardiovascular, respiratory, gastro-intestinal, nefro-urologic, endocrine, gynecological, neurological, psychiatric, dermatological, orthopedic and traumatologic, ophthalmologic, ORL, stomatologic, pediatric, addictions ...) - with average efficiency of 82% in chronic and up to 100% in acute diseases, tested on population of several millions of patients of different pathologies in several thousands of MRT cabinets in Ukraine and Russia.

MRT is practical realization of the Prigogine theory of selforganization of living systems. In that context an explanation for efficiency of the MRT, as noninvasive non-pharmacological medical treatment, should be sought. So, some disorders in the organism give rise to deformation in the standing wave structure of electrical field of the organism in the MW region, which influences corresponding changes in the spatial structure of the acupuncture system, and consequently its resonant frequencies, resulting in some disease; during the therapy, applying the MW sound at corresponding acupuncture point the excited acupuncture system of the patient is relaxing to the previous healthy condition, while reaching normal resonant frequencies responses of its meridians upon the wide spectrum MW source - and following to physiological mechanisms of the acupuncture regulation the organism biochemically overcomes the disease.

Trapping light.
Mae Wan Ho: Organisms are thick with spontaneous activities at every level (100000/min?), right down to the molecules, and the molecules are dancing, even when the organisms sit still. The images obtained give direct evidence of the remarkable coherence (oneness) of living organisms. 1, 2, 3.

The macromolecules, associated with lots of water, are in a dynamic liquid crystalline state, where all the molecules are macroscopically aligned to form a continuum that links up the whole body, permeating throughout the connective tissues, the extracellular matrix, and into the interior of every single cell. And all the molecules, including the water, are moving coherent ly together as a whole.

The organism is creating and recreating herself afresh with each passing moment, recoding and rewriting the genes in her cells in an intricate dance of life that enables the organism to survive and thrive. The dance is written as it is performed; every movement is new, as it is shaped by what has gone before. The organism never ceases to experience its environment and registering its experience for future reference. The coordination required for simultaneous multiple tasks and for performing the most extraordinary feats both depend on a special state of being whole, the ideal description for which is “quantum coherence”. Quantum coherence is a paradoxical state that maximises both local freedom and global cohesion.

The organism is, in the ideal, a quantum superposition of coherent activities over all space-times, constituting a pure coherent state towards which the system tends to return on being perturbed.

An intuitive picture of the quantum coherent organism is a perfect life cycle coupled to energy (and material) flow. The perfect life cycle represents perpetual return and renewal. It is a domain of coherent energy storage that accumulates no waste or entropy within, because it mobilises energy most efficiently and rapidly to grow and develop and reproduce. Not only does it not accumulate entropy, but the waste or entropy exported outside is also minimised.

To be quantum coherent above all, is to be most spontaneous and free.

The wave function that describes the system is also a superposition of all possibilities. It implies that the future is entirely open, and the potentials infinite. Quantum coherence is the prerequisite for conscious experience
It is why each and every one of us thinks of ourselves as “I” in the singular even though we are a multiplicity of organs, tissues and cells, and astronomical numbers of molecules. We would have a wave function that evolves, constantly informing the whole of our being, never ceasing to entangle other quantum entities, transforming itself in the process to mobilize energy most rapidly and efficiently, to intercommunicate nonlocally and instantaneously, transcending the usual separations of space and time. That’s why a ‘being’ can be in two places at the same time and different beings far, far apart can exchange information instantaneously.
- No time, no 'meter', all information in the Universe, every quantum jump is saved and the Universe is recreated (for the 'I') all the time with every jump.

Quantum information processors exploit the quantum features of superposition and entanglement for applications not possible in classical devices.

Friedman et al. go some way to answering this fundamental question by confirming that quantum superposition works as well in the macroscopic world of superconducting rings as it does in the microscopic world of photons, electrons and atoms. A macroscopic system could behave quantum mechanically if it was suitably decoupled from its environment, as in a SQUID. The question was whether a 'persistent' electric current in the ring would decay in a quantum-mechanical way, which has been shown to happen by quantum tunnelling.

At the midpoint of the figure, the measured tunnel splitting energy between the two states. The particle is creating a wave too. From Friedman et al.

Gianni Blatter in Schrödinger's cat is now fat, 2000:
If a macroscopic system can decay by quantum tunnelling, the next question to ask is whether it could also oscillate back and forth between two states. would the macroscopic state tunnel back and forth sequentially, forgetting about its quantum-mechanical make-up after each hop, or would it oscillate coherently, preserving its quantum state throughout the hops? The second process goes under the name of 'macroscopic quantum coherence' and has been something of a holy grail in this field since the 1980s — it is the coherent superposition between the two current states in the ring that corresponds to the indeterminate state of Schrödinger's dead-and-alive cat. Quantum theory predicts that if such a system is strongly coupled to the environment, it remains localized in one state and so behaves classically. At low coupling, the system follows damped, coherent oscillations between the states, with the damping rate vanishing as the coupling to the environment goes to zero (death?). This quantum mixing of the two states leads to a so-called coherence gap separating the energies of the superposition states.

The Scrödinger cat is alive because of its entanglement with the environment. It is dead because it detaches from environment. We know that, everyone knows that.

The true 'symmetric state' (the bullet) is quantal? The energy is the string?

Can living things be quantal?
This subject has been discussed extensively on the web this month. Here a video. BBC News, a photonic cluster, a tiny resonating strip of metal – only 60 micrometres long, but big enough to be seen without a microscope – can both oscillate and not oscillate at the same time, NewScientist, etc.

The coherence gap. Blatter:
One explanation for this coherence gap is as follows. Consider a particle trapped in a potential well with two minima (a double-well potential). As the particle tunnels between the two wells, it lowers its kinetic energy because of the spreading of its wavefunction over both wells. As a result, the new mixed ground state is shifted down with respect to the energy of the individual wells. This 'symmetrical' state always comes with an 'antisymmetric' partner state, which is slightly higher in energy. In fact, this excited state comes to lie at an energy above the original well energy, resulting in an excitation gap of 2*the energylevel. This phenomenon is well known in chemistry, where the two mixed or superposition states correspond to the bonding and antibonding states of a diatomic molecule.
This probability peaks when the microwave frequency matches up with the two superposition states, allowing them to identify a coherence gap. Then they 'surf the wave'.

The challenge in future experiments will be to track the appearance of this coherence gap when probing lower-energy (semiclassical) states deeper in the well. Another possibility would be to make the coherence gap vanish by introducing artificial decoherence into the system, for example by coupling the SQUID to a metallic reservoir.

The coupled qubit-resonator experiment.
Proving that all objects, whatever their size, obeys the same rules has long been a goal of physicists. But with quantum mechanics it is no trivial matter: the larger an object, the more easily its fragile quantum state is destroyed by the disruptive influence of the world around it. O'Connell's experiments required delicate control and a temperature of just 25 millikelvin to measure the state in the few nanoseconds before it was broken down by disruptive influences from outside.

"It was a close call, but sufficient to see a first quantum signature" "The qubit acts as a bridge between the microscopic and the macroscopic worlds," says O'Connell. By tuning the frequency at which the qubit cycled between its two states to match the resonant frequency of the metallic strip, the qubit's quantum state could be transferred to the resonator at will.the resonator was sometimes in its non-oscillating ground state and sometimes in an oscillating "excited" state. The number of times it was measured to be in each state followed the probabilistic rules of quantum mechanics.now the spooky influence of quantum physics on visible objects has been proved, can we expect to be putting an object as large as a real child's swing into an indeterminate quantum state any time soon? O'Connell thinks so. "I'd say in the near future – in the next 20 years."

Markus Aspelmeyer
Researchers have long wanted to be able to control macroscopic mechanical objects in their smallest possible state of motion. Success in achieving that goal heralds a new generation of quantum experiments.

Dead silence — and then roaring applause. I still remember that brief moment that revealed the astonishment of everyone in the audience

Preparation and detection of a mechanical resonator near the ground state of motion.
Rocheleau et al. 2010: Cold, macroscopic mechanical systems are expected to behave contrary to our usual classical understanding of reality; the most striking and counterintuitive predictions involve the existence of states in which the mechanical system is located in two places simultaneously. Various schemes have been proposed to generate and detect such states, and all require starting from mechanical states that are close to the lowest energy eigenstate, the mechanical ground state. Here we report the cooling of the motion of a radio-frequency nanomechanical resonator by parametric coupling to a driven, microwave-frequency superconducting resonator. Starting from a thermal occupation of 480 quanta, we have observed occupation factors as low as 3.8 +/- 1.3 and expect the mechanical resonator to be found with probability 0.21 in the quantum ground state of motion. Further cooling is limited by random excitation of the microwave resonator and heating of the dissipative mechanical bath. This level of cooling is expected to make possible a series of fundamental quantum mechanical observations including direct measurement of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and quantum entanglement with qubits. A widely applicable model of weakly but otherwise arbitrarily coupled two-level systems, and use quantum gate design techniques to derive a simple and intuitive CNOT construction, see Quantum logic with weakly coupled qubits.

Islands of life?
"There is this question of where the dividing line is between the quantum world and the classical world we know"

There is a problem of scaling. Pitkänen suggested a solution with 'Life as islands' in a mathemathical concept.

Quantum interference effects can, in theory, lead to the emergence of new particles carrying exotic quantum numbers at a critical point.

Quantum systems with fluctuating spacetime field configurations map onto field theories in one extra dimension.

Several thermodynamic properties are shown to exhibit logarithmic corrections to scaling. In the renormalization group theory of phase transitions, such logarithmic corrections arise only in very special cases.

It is not easy to drive experimental systems through a phase transition at T=0 without impurities, doping, or magnetic fields, each of which brings in additional features. Perhaps organic molecular crystals, which are very sensitive to pressure, are the most promising candidates.

Feynman put it best: "If you think you understand quantum mechanics, you don't understand quantum mechanics"

Gianni Blatter, 2000: Schrödinger's cat is now fat. Nature 406, 25-26(6 July 2000). doi:10.1038/35017670 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v406/n6791/full/406025a0.html

M. Dugic and D. Rakovic,: Quantum-mechanical tunneling in associative neural networks. Eur. Phys. J. B 13, 781{790 (2000). http://www.dejanrakovicfound.org/papers/2000-EUR-Phys-J-B.pdf

Friedman, J. R. , Patel, V. , Chen, W. , Tolpygo, S. K. & Lukens, J. E. Quantum superposition of distinct macroscopic states. Nature 406, 43– 46 (2000). doi:10.1038/35017505 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v406/n6791/full/406025a0.html#B2

A. D. O’Connell, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, Radoslaw C. Bialczak, M. Lenander, Erik Lucero, M. Neeley, D. Sank, H. Wang, M. Weides, J. Wenner, John M. Martinis & A. N. Cleland. Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator. Nature 464, 697-703(1 April 2010) doi:10.1038/nature08967 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7289/full/nature08967.html NPR

D. Raković, "Acupuncture-based biophysical frontiers of complementary medicine", Proc. 23rd Ann. Int. Conf. IEEE/EMBS, Istanbul, Turkey (2001). http://www.dejanrakovicfound.org/papers/2001-IEEE-MBE-TURKEY.pdf

D. Raković, "Quantum medicine: Phenomenology and quantum-holographic implications", Med Data Rev, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 71-73 (2009). http://www.dejanrakovicfound.org/papers/2009-MED-DATA-REV.pdf

D. Raković, M. Dugić, and M.M. Ćirković, "Macroscopic quantum effects in biophysics and consciousness", NeuroQuantology (www.NeuroQuantology.5u.com) Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 237-262 (2004). http://www.dejanrakovicfound.org/papers/2004-NEUROQUANTOLOGY.pdf

Dejan Rakoviv, 2009: QUANTUM MEDICINE: PHENOMENOLOGY AND QUANTUM-HOLOGRAPHIC IMPLICATIONS. Medical review UDC: 616. http://www.dejanrakovicfound.org/papers/2009-MED-DATA-REV.pdf

Dejan Rakovic, 2003: THINKING AND LANGUAGE: EEG MATURATION AND MODEL OF CONTEXTUAL LANGUAGE LEARNING. Speech and Language 2003, IEFPG, Belgrade. http://www.dejanrakovicfound.org/papers/2003-IEFPG.pdf

Wae Wan Ho:

Rajiv R. P. Singh, 2010: Does quantum mechanics play a role in critical phenomena? Physics 3, 35 (2010) DOI: 10.1103/Physics.3.35 http://physics.aps.org/articles/v3/35

H. Wang, M. Hofheinz, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, E. Lucero, M. Neeley, A. D. O’Connell, D. Sank, M. Weides, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland and John M. Martinis, 2009: Decoherence Dynamics of Complex Photon States in a Superconducting Circuit. arXiv:0909.4585v1

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