There is still no magnetobiological theory, says Binhi 2002. This is due to the paradoxal nature of the biological action of weak low-frequency electromagnetic fields, whose energy is incomparable by far with the charachteristic energy of biochemical transformations. This all makes the very existence of the domain quite dubious with most of the scientific community, despite a wealth of experimental evidence.
Some EM-fields may be a hazard to human health, other invoke on the climate, as significant as temp, humidity.
Biological magnetoreceptors are not recognized yet, but it is important to percieve the way in which the signal of a magnetic field is transformed into a response of a biological system. Libhoff, 1997: Magnetic reversals may have also helped determine the nature of the interaction mechanism between GMF and living systems. Mechanisms based on fixed magnetic moments may not be capable of adapting to the reversal process. A better case can be made for an ion cyclotron resonance interaction. Direct involvement in the cell-signaling activities of biological ions would provide such flexibility, and also point to a broader role for the GMF in modulating CNS function. This has also implications for the memory. Gravity as gravitomagnetism maybe too is a factor.
The body is no barrier for the magnetic field, and all particles in the tissues will be affected. But not all particles are involved in transferring the signal. Primary processes of the interaction - magnetic field:matter - is pure physical in electrons, atoms, molecules. Charged particles seem to be intermediary between field and next biochemical level. Proteins, especially enzymes are regulated in that way, at a subtle level. Interim ions may shift the metabolism. The effect of the field is seen in the densities of metabolic products. Means the interaction hits somewhere in between - on the phase transitions?
Life-support parameters and behavior of individuals and populations, that is collective transformations, a correlating signal (the fish-stim effect; collective consciousness at population level?). Intermediary levels of the organization of a living system, such as biophysical, biochemical and physiological levels are often not considered in experiments, although they affect the experimental results. Magnetism is therefore an uncontrolled cause-and-effect black box. The results we get are not complete.
The quantum ion state can also interfer on protein cavities. Magnetic and electric fields (DC, AC) can be combined in so many different ways. Magnetic momentum, nuclear spin and non-linear response of a protein to the redistribution of ion probability density are other problems. Dissociation probability in ion-protein complex, ion cyclotron frequencies, dimensionless frequencies, amplitude of the variable components of a magnetic field and pulsed and 'vacuum' magnetic fields, so the problem is very complex. Molecules rotating inside protein complexes give molecular gyroscopes and non-thermal resonance effects. Amplitude interference spectra are very important. I just point to these factors, I'm far from qualified to get a grasp on them.
Biomagnetism is the magnetic fields produced by various biological systems, and nanoparticles within.
Magnetobiology is about biological mechanisms, effectiveness and reactions of the action of a weak magnetic field < 1 mT. It is believed that the action of such lies below the trigger threshold for protective biological mechanisms, and are therefore prone to accumulate at biological subcellular and genetical level (Binhi p. 3.).
Libhoff writes 2007: "Based on decades of experimental evidence an excellent argument can be made for the existence of a fundamental functional relationship between living systems and electromagnetic fields. We have previously hypothesized that this relationship can be expressed in terms of a field vector whose source is the distribution of electric polarization within the system and which has both a phylogenetic and ontogenetic time dependence. Ion cyclotron resonance (ICR)-like magnetic signals have resulted in physiologic changes in many in vitro and in vivo model systems and have been applied medically with success to bone repair and spinal fusion. This type of local ICR-like therapy has recently been broadened into a holistic application following the remarkable discovery that the whole-body bioimpedance is sharply dependent on ICR signals. We relate this observation to the integrated electric polarization vector, in turn a measure of the double layer charge distribution at the cell membrane. This discovery, already being applied to a number of clinical problems, lends strong support to the concept of an overarching electromagnetic framework for living systems."
Artificial magnetic fields.
Municipal magnetic noise with its discrete components 60 (50) Hz and harmonics, is one or two orders of magnitude higher than natural background. It was called EM-pollution first time by Becker. Small hyperweak signals are inconsistent with current-wiev - a 'that's impossible type'. Some of these effects are only found at ultra-low AC magnetic intensities, on the order of .05 μT. Low frequency range for households and normal industry are 10 - 100 Hz, the same as in medicine. Still this range is thought to be safe. These fields show often a delayed, accumulating effect months and even years later. The problem is that these fields are also the 'service' fields hard to do without; power transmission lines, cars, TVset, industries, computers, mobile phones, especially 3G-phones. Sensitive people may react at these levels.
Half a meter (the force field diminish rapidly with distance) from apparatuses can the following fields be measured, in μT:
Washing machine, 5
Electric meat grinder 2
Vacuum cleaner 2
Majority of office and public vehicles, 0,1 - 1, peak values may be three orders of magnitude higher. Topp values may be 2000 Hz. (p. 6.)
Standing waves from artificial ambient fields due to badly earthed electrical loops, inductions etc. is also a problem. They can be very powerful, as seen from Muncaster Castle in England.
Hallucinations from these fields are reported by Persinger etc.. Hallucinations have come from what could be broadly described as weak, complex, time-varying magnetic fields, called EIFs, very difficult to measure, because the equipment is not good for it. They are low frequency (approx 0.1 to 30 Hz, and certainly under 50Hz) and a moderate intensity (from 100 to 5000 nT) or amplitude (or, more correctly, flux density). Pulse frequence may be in msec or sec, up to minute. In the laboratory, complexity has been implemented in a number of ways, including (1) increased varying amplitudes and amplitude modulation, (2) varying frequencies and frequency modulation, (3) using patterned amplitude-modulated fields, (4) using complex patterns of pulsed fields, and (5) using rotating fields.
Maurice Townsend has written about 'Artificially Occurring EIFs' and reports that in Moscow "the magnetic fields at frequencies around 1 Hz were around 10 times higher in the suburbs, and 100 times higher in the city centre, compared to the countryside. In the city centre fields up to 250 - 300 nT at a frequency of 0.5 Hz were measured. These are strong enough to constitute EIFs. The fields were attributed, unsurprisingly, to electrical equipment in the city." But one must remember that the biological sensitivity is bigger in lower background fields, too.
In the construction of buildings this is known, but surprices may still arise. The environment change all the time, and magnetic waves are holistic and complex.
Townsend continues: "the 0.1 to 30 Hz frequency range of varying fields is generally quiet. This is because most electrical and electronic devices operate using a mixture of DC (for motors, electronic power supplies, etc.), mains frequency (AC 50/60 Hz) and higher. The DC (static) element is rarely pure, being derived from mains supply with rectifiers (often accompanied by transformers). The resultant DC current has a slight voltage ripple on it. However, due to the way rectifiers are designed, this ripple will typically be at mains frequency or above and so not contribute to EIFs. Similarly, the mains supply itself can be distorted by the electrical loads placed on it by various bits of electrical equipment. This gives rise to harmonics but these, too, have a higher frequency and lower amplitude than the mains fundamental frequency. So most domestic electrical appliances, as well as the mains supply itself, will not contribute to EIFs." The static fields are more important; they give a more stable signal? DC-current is 'the current of injury'; a signal for regeneration and consciousness (Becker).
Probably the most important source of low frequency magnetic fields is the simple movement, or mechanical vibration, of magnetic materials, especially metals. All objects with high magnetic permeability distort the earth’s magnetic field around them, although they may not be magnetised. When objects containing especially iron are vibrated, they drag the magnetic field distortion around with them. Vibration at a rate of between once every ten seconds (0.1 Hz) and thirty times a second (30 Hz) will cause an EIF. It doesn’t need to be a constant frequency motion since, as we have seen, varying fields actually work better! Most motors in domestic use are likely to produce rotating fields at EIF frequencies. They commonly occur in such things as pumps (central heating, fridges, air-conditioning), fans (computers, air-conditioning, some ovens), washing machines, vacuum cleaners, even hi-fi equipment and hair dryers. Such appliances can produce quite powerful rotating magnetic fields.
This is valid also to the brain containing iron. Also big joints halt the signal and make barriers for the energy transfer (Presman).
Zones, time, distortions, changes.
There is bound to be some critical distance, or zone, away from the source where the field amplitude will be correct. All you have to do is stay in that critical area for long enough and, if you are susceptible and the field varies enough over time, you may well get hallucinations. EIFs would probably extend no further than a metre or two from a source if the background is normal.
If there was a higher than usual ambient magnetic field, the range would decrease. Conversely, in an area of lower than usual ambient field, the range would increase (compare to Moscow). One might reasonably ask, how can you live in an area of lower than normal geomagnetic field? Metals can distort the local magnetic field, as we have seen, and create areas where the local magnetic field is actually lower than average. These are also important hallucinatory areas, and need not to be moving. Shape of the source, and different angles are important.
The way in which the localized fields are varying and changing (i.e., their complexity) are crucial rather than overall ambient frequencies, acc. to Townsend. Studies have also argued that large transient magnetic pulses and tectonic events could be associated with instantaneous experiences and events in brain. Some studies failed to find any noticeable magnetic signature of spontaneous cases. EIFs could be transient, volatile instances that may accompany an experience or event more or less instantaneously (such as a pulse or train of pulses). Measuring the area at any given time may actually miss the important characteristics. Magnetic shifts may come and go or exist as a kind of constantly available distorted undercurrent that is more or less present all of the time (in a modulated wave).
Human movements across fields.
Another interesting source of EIFs is human movement! Although you may not have any moving fields within your home, you might move through reasonably strong, complex static fields sufficiently often to produce an EIF in your brain. If you think about it, walking between two areas of high magnetic field, with a low area in between, is no different from having a varying field pass through your head as you sit still. Laboratory studies suggest that (artificial) magnetic fields can induce potent hallucinatory perceptions in certain observers.
Infrasound and magnetic fields.
Infrasound is just like audible sound (a compression wave going through the atmosphere). Acoustic gravity waves are named so because they oscillate between gravity and the elasticity (compressibility)of the Earth. Temperature zones (density zones) are important. Ocean waves, avalanches, earthquakes and certain wind conditions (eg. storms, hurricanes and wind shear around mountain ranges) etc. can produce infrasound. Anything with an engine in it can induce infrasound too, particularly any form of transport and movement.
Typically, background infrasound may enter a resonant 'cavity' and be amplified. A resonant cavity, in this case, is a closed volume of space whose dimensions cause the waves to bounce backwards and forwards (or resonate). Tao hum? A room in a building may be of a suitable specific dimensions (which depends on the wavelength of the infrasound) to cause such resonance.
Pigeons can hear infrasound down to 0,05 Hz, and an acoustic avian map for accurate navigation is proposed consisting of infrasonic cues radiated from steep-sided topographic features. The source of these infrasonic signals is microseisms continuously generated by interfering oceanic and atmospheric waves. Having an acoustic map might also allow clock-shifted birds to test their homeward progress and select between their magnetic and solar compasses.
One confounding problem with infrasound is that it operates at the same frequencies as EIFs and also can induce hallucinations. In fact, infrasound and magnetism may have the same source. Schmitter, 2010, writes: "Our model calculations show the existence of pressure resonances characterized as acoustic duct modes with well defined frequencies. These resonances not only generate infrasound but also modulate the charge density and the velocity field and in this way lead to electric and magnetic field oscillations in the 0.5–20-Hz range that can be monitored from a distance of several kilometers." As seen earlier the infrasound could be linked to plasmoids too. Gravity effects must also be considered.
Spots and persons. Location influence the perception.
There are differences between places, often rooms, spots in rooms and also between different persons, their gender and age and constitution. Not everyone experience hallucinations. Factors may also interfere with the interaction environment:individ.
Many studies have carried out detailed surveys of such locations and revealed potential contributing influences from (1) contextual and situational specific factors, (2) diverse lighting levels, (3) drafts, (4) infrasound levels, (5) the localized distribution and changes in geomagnetic fields (GMFs), (6) time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and (7) transient tectonic events, (8) accumulation with time, to name but a few.
Hallucinations and misperceptions, see Townsends excellent article. A degree of increased neuronal hypersensitivity and susceptibility to these fields have been shown (as instance as induced epileptiform activity) ranging from nebulous and ambiguous sensations to extreme and complex hallucinations, also spontaneously occurring magnetically induced hallucinations. Here discrete shifts and changes in the localized magnetic field would correlate with sympathetic changes (galvanic skin response, ANS-response) and shifts in the neurophysiology, perception, and behavior and one need not necessarily assume any degree of paranormality involved in the experience or event, although it is often interpreted as a paranormal or sacred experience.
The discussion outlined above is analogous to that of searching for seizure-type patterns that may indicate neural storms in an EEG (electroencephalograph) scalp recording of a suspected epileptic patient. In some patients, seizures can only be distinguished around the time of the ictal event. In others, there can be a more constantly available abnormality in the EEG, which can be picked up during inter-ictal periods. In both cases the researcher is interested in the underlying mechanisms mediating how and where the anomalies occur, how they are sustained, how they propagate, and how they disappear--if indeed they do. The EEG has been an invaluable tool to the researcher interested in detailing cortical electrical anomalies and how these relate to neuro-cognitive processes. In essence the task is no different from that of detailing magnetic anomalies, which may exist as invisible thunderstorms (neural storms) in certain locations that may occasionally strike at vulnerable brains.
Hallucinations from Muncaster Castle, England
Braithwaite et al. reported hallucinations and related physiological components included (1) sudden headaches/migraines, (2) eyes watering, (3) runny nose, (4) ringing in the ears, and (5) bouts of dizziness. These reported sensations can occur alone or can be accompanied by other haunt-type components in some instances. Some observers have reported the strong feeling of a "sensed presence," being watched, hearing footsteps, distinct sounds of children crying/screaming and a periodic feeling of foreboding. Also that the old heavy door opened abruptly and apparently of its own accord. As these experiences often happen while in the center room, one typically attribute the sensations to the room, often with a paranormal interpretation concerning it.
For this room a large and significant difference in magnetic field amplitude was measured between the sensors. This difference was in the region of 47,000 nT; the fields measured by the baseline sensor were far higher (in the region of 77,000 nT) than what would be predicted for the castle area (49,000 nT: British Geological Survey data), and the fields measured in the pillow region of the bed were lower (around 30,000 nT). To account for the increased fields measured in the baseline area, Braithwaite suggested contributions from both man-made and local geological sources combined.
The reduction in amplitude in the pillow area was attributed primarily to a possible localized anomaly created by the heavy metal/iron lattice bed supports underneath the mattress. This lattice did not extend to the pillow area, but covered an area approximately from the ankles to the upper shoulders/chest area. The presence of such a magnetically permeable object may well have been distorting the background field away from the pillow area (which is supported by wood) and thus reducing the amplitudes in that area. There was a significant difference between the magnitudes of variance measured by the sensors. The variance in the crucial pillow area was far greater than that measured on the nearby baseline sensor placed in the same room a number of meters away. This difference occurred throughout the measuring period (4 hr) and appeared to be a constant component of the background variance.
The range of variability encountered was not far from that used in laboratory studies of brain stimulation. They are also similar to, and above, the levels of variability measured in other field studies that were directly linked with questionnaire responses of strange perceptions and feelings. Baseline measurements across both this and the original study have revealed a standard deviation of magnetic variability in the region of 15 nT to 20 nT, increasing to 30 nT to 50 nT in areas associated with anomalous reports. These values are comparable to other field studies. For instance, Wiseman et al. 2003 measured fields varying from around 11 nT, which were also linked to concurrent increases in anomalous interpretations given in questionnaire responses from individuals at that time. Sensitive people show increased signs of temporal-lobe instability or particular forms of attentional biases.
Internal background varied between 5 nT and 50 nT, with variations within this range. An average standard deviation would be around 2 to 8 nT. Transient pulses very similar to those reported here have also been documented in the region of around 50 nT to 100 nT.
Note also that in the laboratory it is typical for participants to undergo at least 20 to 30 brain exposure before any experiential effects take place and are reported. This highlights a possible indirect mechanism that requires a more prolonged period of exposure before such energetic components are fully recruited into the experiential gestalt. In the natural setting, as long as the varying fields are readily available, it is likely that at some point favorable positions, level of arousal, and an appropriate degree of susceptibility could co-occur, the consequence of which could be some form of anomalous experience or interpretation.
In certain circumstances, it may not be necessary for the magnetic anomaly to be present to set up and sustain its experiential influence. Instead, merely being present for a period sufficient to initiate a process--which can then be continued, amplified, and propagated within neural structures--may be enough.
Common bereavement apparitions are hallucinatory experiences evoked by transient electrical instability within the (glucocorticoid) sensitized mesiobasal temporal lobes. All first hand reports of ‘postmortem apparition’ experiences were collected by Persinger 1988, from a published data base. The days on which the experiences occurred displayed significantly greater (mean increase = 10 gamma) geomagnetic activity compared to the days before or afterwards. These results suggest that bereavement apparitions are situation-specific hallucinations evoked by microseizures within sensitized temporal lobe structures; the occurrence of these microseizures might be facilitated by suppression in melatonin levels that could accompany sudden increases in geomagnetic activity.
Perceptions are very much correlated by both brain activity and environmental activity.
Binhi & Rubin 2007, discusses the 'kT problem paradox' and magnetic nanoparticles found in many organisms, long-lived rotational states of some molecules within protein structures, spin magnetic moments in radical pairs, and magnetic moments of protons in liquid water. In a later article he puts this in relation to cancer and leukemia in children. This is very much debated after the power-line report hinting at the same thing. Stress is also seen diminishing the cancer frequency. Here is some relation?
BRAITHWAITE, J.J. 2004: Magnetic variances associated with 'haunt-type' experiences: A comparison using time-synchronised baseline measurements. European Journal of Parapsychology, 19, 3-28.
Jason J. Braithwaite, Katty Perez-Aquino, Maurice Townsend 2004: In search of magnetic anomalies associated with haunt-type experiences: pulses and patterns in dual time-synchronized measurements. Journal of Parapsychology, The Fall issue 2004. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2320/is_2_68/ai_n16107399/
Vladimir N. Binhi, 2002: Magnetobiology: underlying physical problems. Google books.
Vladimir Binhi. 2008: Do naturally occurring magnetic nanoparticles in the human body mediate increased risk of childhood leukaemia with EMF exposure?. International Journal of Radiation Biology 84:7, 569-579 http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09553000802195323
V. N. Binhi and A. B. Rubin, 2007: Magnetobiology: The kT Paradox and Possible Solutions. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 2007, Vol. 26, No. 1, Pages 45-62 , DOI 10.1080/15368370701205677
COOK, C.M., & PERSINGER, M.A. 2001: Geophysical variables and behavior: XCII. Experimental elicitation of the experience of a sentient being by right hemispheric, weak magnetic fields: interaction with temporal lobe sensitivity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 2, 447-448. http://www.fdpsa.com/summary1xbrief/PMS-April-2001_0016_s.pdf
FULLER, M., DOBSON, J, WIESER, H.G., & MOSER, S. 1995: On the sensitivity of the human brain to magnetic fields: Evocation of epileptiform activity. Brain Research Bulletin, 36, 155-159.
Jonathan T. Hagstrum 2001: Infrasound and the Avian Navigational Map. The Royal Institute of Navigation. The Journal of Navigation (2001), 54:3:377-391 Cambridge University Press, doi:10.1017/S037346330100145X
HOURAN, J. 2000: Toward a psychology of "entity encounter experiences." Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 64, 141-158.
LANGE, R., & HOURAN, J. 1997: Context-induced paranormal experiences: Support for Houran and Lange's model of haunting phenomena. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 1455-1458.
LANGE, R., & HOURAN, J. 2001: Ambiguous stimuli brought to life: The psychological dynamics of hauntings and poltergeists. In J. Houran and R. Lange (Eds.), Hauntings and poltergeists: Multidisciplinary perspectives, pp. 280-306. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
A. R. Liboff, 1997: Geomagnetic Reversals and Genome Imprinting. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, Vol. 16 (3): 309-320 doi: 10.3109/15368379709015662
A. R. Liboff, 2009: Electric Polarization and the Viability of Living Systems: Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Like Interactions. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, Vol. 28, No. 2, 124-134 DOI 10.1080/15368370902729293
MAHER, M.C. 2000: Quantitative investigation of the General Wayne Inn. Journal of Parapsychology, 63, 47-80.
MAILER, M.C., & HANSEN, G.P. 1997: Quantitative investigation of a legally disputed "haunted house." Proceedings of Presented Papers: The Parapsychological Association 40th Annual Convention, 184-201.
MAKAREC, K., & PERSINGER, M.A. 1987: Electroencephalographic correlates of temporal lobe signs and imagings. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 64, 1124-1126.
MAKAREC, K., & PERSINGER, M.A. 1990: Electroencephalographic validation of a temporal lobe signs inventory in a normal population. Journal of Research in Personality. Volume 24, Issue 3, September 1990, Pages 323-337
Michael A. Persinger, 2001: The Neuropsychiatry of Paranormal Experiences. Neuropsychiatric Practice and Opinion. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 13:515-524, November 2001 American Psychiatric Press, Inc. Free. http://neuro.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/13/4/515
PERSINGER, M.A. 1983: Religious and mystical experiences as artifacts or temporal lobe function: A general hypothesis. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 57, 1255-1262.
PERSINGER, M.A. 1984: Propensity to report paranormal experiences is correlated with temporal lobe signs. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 59, 583-586.
PERSINGER, M.A. 1985: Geophysical variables and behaviour: XXII. The tectonic strain continuum of unusual events. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 60, 59-65. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3982946?dopt=Abstract
PERSINGER, M.A. 1988: Increased geomagnetic activity and the occurrence of bereavement hallucinations: Evidence for a melatonin mediated microseizuring in the temporal lobe? Neuroscience Letters, 88, 271-274. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(88)90222-4
PERSINGER, M. A. 1993a: Average diurnal changes in melatonin levels are associated with hourly incidence of bereavement apparitions: Support for the hypothesis of temporal (limbic) lobe microseizuring. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 76, 444-446.
PERSINGER, M.A. 1993b: Transcendental meditation and general meditation are associated with enhanced complex partial eplileptic-like signs: Evidence for "cognitive" kindling? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76, 80-82.
Persinger, M.A. 1999a; The Most Frequent Criticisms and Questions Concerning the Tectonic Strain Hypothesis.
PERSINGER, M.A. 1999b: Near-death experiences and ecstasy: A product of the organization of the human brain? In S. Della Sala (Ed.), Mind myths: Exploring popular assumptions about the mind and brain (pp. 85-99). New York: Wiley.
PERSINGER, M.A., & CAMERON, R.A. 1986: Are earth faults at fault in some poltergeist-like episodes? Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 61, 49-73.
PERSINGER, M.A., & KOREN, S.A. 2001: Predicting the characteristics of haunt phenomena from geomagnetic factors and brain sensitivity: Evidence from field and experimental studies. In J. Houran & R. Lange (Eds.), Hauntings and poltergeists: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp.. 179-194). Jefferson, NC: McFarland. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11322603?dopt=Abstract
PERSINGER, M.A., & MAKAREC, K. 1993: Complex partial epileptic-like signs as a continuum from normals to epileptics. Normative data and clinical populations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49, 33-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8425933?dopt=Abstract
PERSINGER, M. A., & ROLL, W. G. (Eds.). 1985: The temporal lobe factor in psi phenomena. Metuchen, N.J. & London: Scarecrow Press.
E. D. Schmitter, 2010: Modeling tornado dynamics and the generation of infrasound,
electric and magnetic fields. Brief communication. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 295–298, 2010. http://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/10/295/2010/nhess-10-295-2010.pdf
Townsend, Maurice: Magnetic Hallucinations; http://www.assap.org/newsite/articles/Magnetic%20ghosts.html
Townsend, Maurice: Misperceptions and Hallucinations: http://www.assap.org/newsite/articles/Misperception.html
WISEMAN, R., WATT, G., GREENING, E., STEVENS, P., & O'KEEFFE, C. 2002: An investigation into the alleged haunting of Hampton Court Palace: Psychological variables and magnetic fields. Journal of Parapsychology, 66, 387-408.
WISEMAN, R., WATT, C., STEVENS, P., GREENING, E., & O'KEEFFE, C. 2003: An investigation into alleged "hauntings." British Journal of Psychology, 94, 195-211.
Is “information is physical” contentful?
3 timmar sedan