System biology build on an understanding of how cells and organisms carry out their functions, and cannot be gained by looking at cellular components in isolation. Instead, the interplay between the parts of systems is indispensable for analyzing, modelling, and predicting system behavior. Studying biological processes under this premise, system biology combines experimental techniques and computational methods in order to construct predictive models (simulations). Both in building and utilizing models of biological systems, inverse problems arise at several occasions, for example, (i) when experimental time series and steady state data are used to construct biochemical reaction networks, (ii) when model parameters are identified that capture underlying mechanisms or (iii) when desired qualitative behavior such as bistability or limit cycle oscillations is engineered by proper choices of parameter combinations. The windows can cause troubles if they are not recognized.
Factors in neuronal stability: (comes in later articles)
Perifer nerve net
Connective tissue matrix, cytosceleton, microtubulis
The extracellular matrix.
DNA, cell membrane; a frequency in the 10^11 Hz region, which is on the order of the frequency of membrane vibrations (millimeter wave region).
Brain size, nerve net size.
Night-time hallucinations are especially common, or in wake-up stage. This has been linked to brain activity. Hallucinations need a low activity pattern, usually below 10 Hz. The brain needs to be 'tuned in' to the hallucinatory frequencies, that comes from the outside of body as induction. A higher frequence, as betafrequence for thinking, will shield out those low frequencies, just as in a radio.
The low frequencies are produced within the body too (intrinsic, endogen), and will rise to the brain when we sleep or feel low, depressed, and then induce hallucinations. Also this happen only when the brain activity is low (or very chaotic. Chaotic conditions comes from emotional rush through amygdala - hippocampus - temporalis, as Persinger has shown. In pressed situations we produce chaotic signals, and in that way we would produce many alternative ways to behave; an allostatic reaction.
This low frequency is also seen in parapsychologic research of paranormal conditions. One way to enhance PSI-effects is to calm down the mind. Meditation is also such a technique.
Another way to get hallucinations is to make the mind chaotic. These two ways to regulate the body are seen again and again, over all the systems. In the bottom we find homeostasis and allostasis.
That patients who display complex partial seizures with foci within the temporal lobes, particularly the amygdala and hippocampus, report more frequent paranormal-like experiences has been known for decades. Surgical stimulation of mesiobasal structures within the temporal lobes, particularly the right hemisphere, has been shown to evoke comparable experiences. The experiences during stimulation are not just memories, but enhancements or vivifications of the class of ongoing experiences (perceptions, thoughts, or memories) at the time of the stimulation.
Variations in the earth's magnetic field and magnetic storms are known to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disorders. The main “targets” for geomagnetic perturbations are the CNS and the neural regulation of vascular tone and heart rate variability. In data about effect of geomagnetic fluctuations on human body in space (cosmonauts), the analysis of heart rate variability was used, which allows evaluating the state of the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system, vasomotor center and subcortical neural centers activity. A specific impact of geomagnetic perturbations on the system of autonomic circulatory control in cosmonauts during space flight. The increasing of highest nervous centers activity was shown for group with magnetic storms, which was more significant on 1–2 days after magnetic storm.
Bistolfi reports that the frequency of the oscillating phenomenon related to biological hydrogen bonds appears to remain limited to the infrared frequency band, from near infrared (10^-6 wavelength, l0^14 Hz) to far infrared almost to in the microwave region (10^-4 wavelength, 10^11 Hz). He maintains that one can consider DNA and protein hydrogen bonds as centers of EM radiation emission in the range going from the millimeter waves to the far infrared. Low frequency harmonic pulsations may be the result of the interaction of the Schumann resonances with such signals, the resulting waves in turn generating a stronger oscillation within the connective tissues of the body. The result of this activity may be measurable as a "biofield", and may represent a form of biomagnetic emission consisting of relatively stable, coherent, measurable vibrations.
Fröhlich suggested that some of the large molecules within a cell resonate with the membranes electrical oscillations. Hence the cell as a whole, and a tissue composed of a number of such cells, could have a stable resonant frequency which would be a collective property of the whole assembly. Long range phase-correlated vibrations between the components of such an assembly could constitute a type of communication system regulating certain cellular behaviors, such as cell division. The cell is an organized semi-solid with a matrix of water with embedded macromolecules complexed with sodium and potassium ions. The cell may be considered to resemble somewhat of a solid, so that cellular ion transport phenomena may be analyzed by the methods of solid state, or perhaps, liquid crystal physics. See Pollak, 2000.
The cell cannot be accepted without the vital environment in which it exists. Pischinger explores this weakness. The 50 billion cells in the human organism exist in a working system. They are not merely cellular functioning units, which can be repaired when defects are present. Acute events cannot be isolated from intermeshed biological associations. Cells have a reciprocal relationship to their environment.
The interactive nature of the extracellular matrix with the connective and supporting tissues and blood is extremely important. Nerves and vessels do not come into direct contact with the functioning cells at any point in the body; the connective tissue via the extracellular matrix is really the mediating member. It transports nerve and nutrition flow and reciprocal effects from the nerves pass through it everywhere. The condition of this medium (such as its degree of hydration and toxicity) may invoke on the ability of the whole structure to oscillate.
Cells and intracellular elements are capable of vibrating in a dynamic manner with complex harmonics which can be analyzed using Fourier analysis. Information can be transferred along this matrix. Cellular events occur within spatial and temporal harmonics and have potential regulatory importance.
The connective tissue system may act as a coupled harmonic oscillator, operating as a signal transducing system from the cell periphery to the nucleus and ultimately to the DNA. The transfer of information can occur through the direct transfer of vibrational energy through harmonic wave motions. Wave propagation along a tensor can pass information through the amplitude, frequency, and phase of the wave propagating along it. The amount of information that a tensor system can pass is equal to the width of the frequency of the waves of information and the total time they are available for interpretation.
Specific molecular channels (=mechanoreceptors?) could exist within the structure of the matrix to conduct bioelectromagnetic signals.
Another interesting 'channel' is gap junctions that has been linked to the acupuncture meridians.
Maybe the Libets finding of a readiness potential is the difference between these. First the meridian direct electric signal, then later the nerve signal.
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See also Physicists challenge notion of electric nerve impulses; say sound more likely. http://www.scienceblog.com/cms/physicists-challenge-notion-of-electric-nerve-impulses-say-shtml.
Heinz W Engl et.al, 2009: Inverse problems in systems biology. Inverse Problems 25 123014 Issue 12 (December 2009) doi: 10.1088/0266-5611/25/12/123014
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