söndag 22 februari 2009

Microsystems as Fractals of the Human Body

Today there exists many forms of therapies that point out the fractal characteristics of the human body. Every part of the body can be seen as holographic system of its own. So the hand and the foot, the leg, the arm, the ear, the face, the head etc. are small copies of the body reflected to the skin. Also inner parts as the tongue, the teeth, the large intestine are microsystems, but because they are inner parts they are seldom used.

Location of auricular organ projection areas related to gallbladder (1), appendix (2), stomach (3), uterus (4), heart (5), and lungs (6)

The idea is based on the principle of the fractalisation of living and non-living nature and on the acupuncture channels systems wave essence. This theory allows from physics point of view explain such categories of traditional chines medicine as meridian, point, microacupuncture system, Qi-energy, pathogen factors. Possible amount of projection microsystems on skin surface and mucous membranes is unlimited.

The necessity of scientific elaboration of physiologic mechanisms of treatment effects are badly needed. The problems with skin electrical potentials are enlighted in an article here. Three lines of scientific evidence suggest that impedance at APs is electrically distinct from non-AP sites and that changes in skin impedance at APs may be of substantial diagnostic, therapeutic and research significance.

The medicine has long known such mechanisms as referred pain (reflexes of pain to the skin), trigger points (reflexes to muscles and tendons), dermatomes (reflexes from the nerves to the skin), and sclerotomes (from bones to skin), reflexes from the heart and intestine, the tendons, the muscles etc. Reflexes are very important as a whole for the body. They are used as messengers for feed-back and feed-forward mechanisms, or in short as stress responses, and the aim for these responses are to adapt the body to its surroundings. The stress can be outer stress from the surroundings, but more often it is inner stress, built up by the individual. In chinese traditional medicine they also say, that illness can never come from outside, if the body is in balance.

Reflexes from skin to the organs
These same reflexes can also be used the other way; from the skin we can see our inner body. We can diagnose imbalances in different organs, as seen from South-Africa, where Szopinski among others found that all our inner organs had reflexes to the skin. This is called organ electrodermal diagnostics (OED)and has a a thorough scientific background, including two Ph.D. theses, a master's degree dissertation and several research articles published in international medical journals (can be requested from Diagnotronics). This has been investigated academically for 20 years.
OED is the first method of this kind that has undergone double-blind clinical trials with positive results.

Rectification ratios obtained at Organ Projection Areas, OPAs, related to diseased organs before premedication were approximately 3 times higher than readings from control points. Premedication, general anesthesia, and skin incision did not influence the results. However, direct surgical manipulation of the diseased organs resulted in a rapid and statistically significant (P<.001) increase in the rectification ratios observed in the related skin areas. In addition, rectification ratios were significant (P<.001) for all conditions vs control.

Various specific relationships between the skin and internal organs are known. Pain sensitivity (e.g., as assessed by means of Head's dermatomes), skin temperature, hydration, and color, as well as electrical parameters, may be changed by internal organ pathology. Correlations between skin electrical resistance and psychological status (psychogalvanic reaction) are used in polygraph tests. The impact of endocrine function and autonomic innervation of particular dermatomes on the skin's electrical resistance is also well known. The electrical current perception threshold is influenced by many diseases.

Many authors have investigated the effect of particular organ pathology on the electrical parameters of the corresponding skin areas. Diagnostic methods based on measurements of electrical potential, resistance, and impedance of these zones have been proposed. However, their diagnostic accuracy has not been proven and reproducibility has not been consistent. Some of these methods use specific bioelectrical properties of acupuncture points.

A breakthrough effect
A wide variety of measurement techniques and current parameters are used in the above-mentioned methods. The results obtained often depend on perspiration, which is influenced by the patient's muscular tension, emotional condition, skin hydration, procedure duration, environmental temperature, and humidity, as well as the pressure of the measuring electrode. Therefore, these methods did not find widespread application in contemporary medicine, and the authors' ideas did not create a unified and systematic scientific basis for the use of bioelectrical skin properties for organ diagnostics.

The nervous system is the primary computing system of the human body. The sensory nervous system detects any damage done to the body from both outside and inside and sends the information, at the earliest stage of pathology, to the central nervous system, which controls potent self-defense mechanisms. The CNS cannot simultaneously process all available information, originating internally and externally, due to limited capacity. The necessity to eliminate information which is less important at the time, created the specific converging structure of the sensory nervous system.

Due to the specific structure of the nervous system, this information also reaches certain skin areas (Convergence Modulation Theory), causing changes in the skin's bioelectrical properties. This phenomenon opened new and logical opportunities for medical diagnostics. OED is the first clinically proven method of this kind which accesses the body's own information system, the 'first hand' source of diagnostic information.

The CNS gives higher priority to signals resulting from external stimuli (skin) than to messages coming from internal organs: information coming from sensory organs is generally more important for the organism's self-defense and survival. This is why signals generated by internal organs can be blocked by even mild stimulation of the relevant skin areas. 'Convergence modulation theory' is introduced, which proposes that acupuncture and other reflexive therapies function by controlling the flow of information in the nervous system and thereby reprogramming the powerful self-defense systems according to actual needs.

The OED device utilizes the electrical “breakthrough effect” of the skin to estimate the extent of the diode phenomenon in skin areas corresponding to particular internal organs. In this way OED identifies diseased internal organs and estimates the intensity of pathological processes within these organs.

Reflexological research
The American Academy of Reflexology conducted the first reflexology research study to ever be published in scientific medical literature, when the study appeared in the prestigious journal, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 82, #6, December 1993.
In China was an clinical trial (16 patients) made on this subject too in 1993 (Qi)to Testify the Relationship Between Large Intestine and Its Foot Reflex Zone. This study revealed that foot reflexology of the large bowel and rectum have an obvious relationship with disorders of corresponding anatomic structures.
Since then many other Reflexology Research Studies have been reported around the world.

Acupuncture as a science are nowadays going through an enormous developement. Different microsystems are detected from different parts of the body. From the first look even the brief review astonishes by their variety. Auriculotherapy (Nogier), Su Jock-therapy (Park Jae Woo), ECIWO-therapy (Zhang Ying Qing), oral acupuncture (J. Gleditch), iridodiagnostics, nasal therapy, different modifications of scalptherapy (including Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture-YNSA), facial reflexology (Sörensen) vaginal acupuncture (H. Buchheit), clavicle needle injection – that is a far not full list.

All the varieties of these systems are united by their general property – each of them is a projection of all body parts and internal organs on the limited section of the skin, mucous membrane and periosteum. The organs are extrapolated not only morphologically, but also functionally. It’s evidently impossible to explain such kind of reflection on so various and removed surfaces by the only means of neurohormonal connections. Nevertheless the clinical efficiency of influence on the microsystems points is out of doubt. One of modern theories of the acupuncture influence is the fractal-field model of organism structure. It exactly opens the way for the microacupuncture systems appearance, structure and activity understanding.

Benua Mandelbrot, working in the field of nonlinear equations and complex numbers is the father of fractal geometry. Their peculiarity is that the primary (mother’s) figure gives rise to the absolutely similar in form and contents but smaller in size figures. This similarity is mathematically endless in principle, but the real size of the smallest figure must be restricted by atom size. Apart from the self-organization principle here is demonstrated the dialectical unity of structure and chaos during the same process: the central symmetrical figure at the beginning of the process is gradually turning to the chaotic “fractal dust” on the periphery.

Recently the fractalisation (similarity) principle has been recognized as the basic principle of nature self-organization. A lot of similar to fractal structures were also discovered in the organism. The organisms are said to be geometrical, topological, and fractal in its forms. Furthermore besides structural there are functional fractals as well. For example, according to the ECG Holter monitoring data, the curve depicting the alteration of heart’s contractions frequency for 24 hours, is identical to the R-R interval (electrocardiogram) one minute’s exchange diagram.

There were many attempts to explain the nature of acupuncture meridians. Now you can count about twenty theories, that confirms that the problem has not been solved yet. One of modern views is the fractal-field model of the organism structure, which describes the meridian as a wave’s extreme cycle in the organism coherent field with projection on the body surface at the acupuncture points zone. According to the positions, the main function of the meridians is an informational exchange between the organism (microspace) and the environment (macrospace). The goal of this exchange is the adaptation of on organism for the environment’s changeable conditions.

Negentropy maximization principle.
One concept that is often used is entropy. When the differentation increases the entropy becomes smaller. The negative entropy of a living system is the entropy that it exports to keep its own entropy low; it lies at the intersection of entropy and life. Negentropy is used as a measure of distance to normality. Negentropy is the force that seeks to achieve effective organizational behavior and lead to a steady predictable state. Planck thermodynamic potential, known also as free entropy, has been shown to play a great role in the so-called entropic formulation of statistical mechanics, applied among the others in molecular biology. The term was introduced by Erwin Schrödinger in his 1943 popular-science book What is life. Matti Bergström uses this in his dipole brain theory. Also different low energy lasers are used in this way. The "healthy" frequence is 632 nm, used by Anu Mäkelä among others. Its "healtiness" depends on its harmonious characteristics.

Quantum biology.
In quantum physics the different elementar particles also behaves according to the same principles, and how could it be otherwise. The life, and all the world, is built from these particles. They have also a supersymmetry of bosons and fermions. That is matter and not matter, perhaps dark matter. From this simple equation is then the whole universe built. Soon, perhaps, we have the answers, when the so called Higgs particle´s secret is revieled.

One fundamental aspect in understanding of fractalization principle is Planck constant. Matti Pitkänen has developed a fascinating theory, TGD, that will unite the quantum world with our classical world ontology. And there is the Planck constant hierarchy very central, indeed. The thought that the hierarchy of Planck constants could label levels of fractal hierarchy is quite new, and hitherto controversial. But it looks very good.

The evolution goes up the ladder of Planck constants. The different Planck constants grows bigger as evolution goes on, and the materia condensates at magnetic flux tubes containing dark matter forming a fractal hierarchy.

As above, so below, is the ancient saying, that in this way can be said to be true. I will come back to this fascinating question later.

It is a very fruitful combination to unite biology with physics. The physic tries to get the simple picture, so often lost in science. Said with Matti Bergströms words on the observer-problem - "There then appears to be a paradox: a "sleeping physicist" would be the best, ideal, observer, since the imaginary, subconscious dimension would not affect the cortical/sensory functions and the results of our observation in physical experiments. There would be no iterations in the observing Self. And no local "dance", nor uncertainty, in the observed object."

Here links also the very complicated question of EEG, EMG, EXG, seen as fractals. Also other electromagnetic frequencies may be involved. The Yin and Yang of our world?

- Microacupuncture systems are one of the manifestations of fractalisation, the universal principle of self-organization in nature.
- The number of possible microsystems is unlimited.
- Resolution of a microsystem and its influence on the organism depend on the size of its projection on the surface of skin, mucous membrane and periosteum. This influence is the most effective in the points of the classical acupuncture meridians.
-The fractal-field theory of the microacupuncture systems needs the elaboration of the physiological mechanism for the medical effect realization.

Bergström Matti 2006: Imaginary Time, Real Time and Complex Time
- a brain based analysis of the time concept to be used in physical science. http://www.matti-bergstrom.fi/complextime.html

Bouevitch, Vadim M.Ac. Microacupuncture Systems as Fractals of the Human Body.


Colbert A. P. et. al.: Skin Impedance Measurements for Acupuncture Research: Development of a Continuous Recording System. eCAM Advance Access published online on June 15, 2007, http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/nem060v1?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=1&andorexacttitle=and&titleabstract=Skin+Impedance+Measurements+for+Acupuncture+Research&andorexacttitleabs=and&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&fdate=//&resourcetype=HWCIT

Nebrat V. The physical model of the low energy electromagnetic field influence on the human body through acupuncture points. Saint-Petersburg. 2-nd European Congress “Acupuncture White Nights-97”. Poster.

Paitgen H.-O., Richter P.H. The beauty of Fractals. Images of complex dynamical systems. Heidelberg. Springer-Verlag, 1986 p.175

Pitkänen Matti, 2006: Does TGD Predict the Spectrum of Planck Constants? http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/tgdquant/tgdquant.html#Planck and
- 2008: TGD Inspired Quantum Model of Living Matter. http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html/articles/quantumbio.pdf

Qi, H., "Clinical Trial to Testify the Relationship Between Large Intestine and Its Foot Reflex Zone." 1993 China Reflexology Symposium Report, Beijing : China Reflexology Association, pages 60-61.

Szopinski J.Z., Pantanowitz D., Lochner G.P. Estimation of the diagnostic accuracy of organ electrodermal diagnostics. South African Medical Journal 2004, Vol. 94, No. 7, pp 547-551.
Szopinski J.Z., Sierak T., Lochner G.P. Neurophysiological foundations of organ electrodermal diagnostics, acupuncture, TENS and other reflexive therapies. South African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia 2004, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp 21-27.

JZ Szopinski & D Pantanowitz: Estimation of the diagnostic accuracy of organ electrodermal diagnostics. South African Medical Journal > Vol. 94, No. 7 (2004).

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