måndag 2 november 2009

What is quantum biology

Quantum biology must give a better understanding of how things are and how they function. It is about synchronization, organization and coherence. Quantum biology also gives an understanding of form as a 'necessity' factor, discussed by Schjelderup (1). In short, quantum biology is a theory of life.

The new science of quantum biology is teaching us about how the actual behavior of evolution is governed. Will quantum computation be realized in organic systems? Evolution is the new (old) computation.. The premise is simple. Life is a molecular process; molecular processes operate according to the quantum playbook; therefore, life is a quantum process.

The figure presents the scheme of the integral membrane proteins forming the photosynthetic unit.

Now, a new kind of science, called “quantum biology,” is beginning to emerge –- and it could change everything we know.

And yet, it wasn’t until the nineties (2) that it was suggested biology could be better understood by looking at it through the lens of quantum theory. Not long after that, the idea caught on – particularly in the neurosciences, where the idea of the brain as a quantum computer quickly became a topic of fierce debate.

Investigations of dynamic molecular structure and energy transfer at the quantum level have credibility if they explain macroscopic biological observables that otherwise are inexplicable, says Wikipedia article. Why so? It must also explain normal biology. After all everything is made up from quantum particles. The atom is no definitive border. All living materia is only illusionary stable. In fact atoms is transported in and out all the time. Also the chromosomes are changed a little, but they are still quite conserved, actively. The germ-line is also protected (also from the quantum biology), as is the brain (by tight junctions). The self-organization is the process that maintain the illusory picture of an iniert body. We all know we are not the same individual when we are born and when we die.

Frequence-specific absorption
Some of the biological phenomena that have been studied in terms of quantum processes are the absorbance of frequency-specific radiation (i.e., olfaction and here, hearing, taste, and vision) Also mecanosenses in the body; the conversion of chemical energy into motion; magnetoreception in animals and brownian motors in many cellular processes. Above all quantum biology unites these perceptions. Here a long list to study.

Chemical transformations
Biological processes that involve the conversion of energy into forms that are usable for chemical transformations are quantum mechanical in its nature. These processes involve chemical reactions themselves, light absorption, formation of excited electronic states, transfer of excitation energy, transfer of electrons and protons, etc.

Some other biological processes, e.g. orientation of birds in the magnetic field of Earth, and bee dance, have been also suggested to require quantum mechanics. Also analysis of magnetic fields, and may possibly shed light on Circadian rhythms etc.

Quantum biochemistry
Photosynthesis and oxidative respiration have produced significant, verifiable results. In particular the step-wise, quantum release of protons upon photon absorption linked to water `splitting' in photosynthesis requires a quantum theoretical explanation involving complex photosystem II.
Enzyme reactions involve quantum tunnelling mechanisms, highlighted by both experimental and theoretical studies in enzyme-catalysed hydrogen transfer. What is the physical basis of the phenomenal rate enhancements achieved by enzymes? Reorganization energy electron /proton tunnelling etc.
Chemical transformations that involve the conversion of energy with phase transitions for instance. These processes involve chemical reactions, light absorption, formation of excited electronic states, transfer of excitation energy, etc. Quantum biology uses mathematical computation in biological tissues to model biological interactions.
Membrane interactionsas with phospholipase A2 enzyme. The coupling between the quantum proton and the classical atoms is done as well as the time dependence of the potential energy function. The mechanism of surface activation is in focus. It is activated in some way when it interacts with aggregated forms of the substrate, such as in micelles or in bilayers. Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions are suspected to be involved in the binding of the enzyme to the membrane. Very little is known of the enzyme-membrane complex structure and why the enzyme reacts much more efficiently once it binds its substrates in an aggregated form.
Free radicals already 1961. Signals having an absorption and emission character were observed in the 12-5 MHz–18 MHz frequency band in the direction parallel to the external magnetic field.
The function of membrane proteins often depends on the proteins interaction with their lipid environment, spectacularly so in the case of mechanosensitive channels, which are gated through tension mediated by the surrounding lipids.
Quantum genetics. An unresolved and still controversial issue in this field is that of non-trivial (i.e. not limited to properties of molecules) role of quantum effects in biological systems. However recent studies of transcription are consistent with quantum information processing of coherent duplex DNA states by the transcriptase.
Receptorfunction, as aquaporins, gap junctions and GPCR-receptors show quantum mechanical functions with phase transitions.
The nerve pulse according to soliton model is quantum mechanical.

Coherence and synergism
“God does not play dice”, is a famous Einsteinian lapsus. Quantum mechanics is magic.
Is the moon there when nobody looks? "During a walk Einstein suddenly stopped, turned and asked whether I really believed that the moon exists only when I look at it." Would we know if moon was never observed?

All the parts of an organism “are multidimensionally, dynamically, and almost instantly correlated with all other parts”. What happens to a cell or an organ will influence all the other cells and organs. We may here talk about an organic correlation which may correspond to the phenomenon of entanglement in quantum physics. The organism is also coherent with its surroundings, and the external environment is reflected in its interior. It is due to this coherence that the organism may develop in harmony with its environment.

Water as coherence mediator
The quantum coherence of organisms arises from the unique ability of living systems to store and mobilise energy with zero entropy in the ideal, and depends to a large extent on the liquid crystalline water matrix that enables each molecule to intercommunicate with every other, creating the most exquisite ‘quantum jazz’ of light and sound displays that span 70 octaves in all the colours of the rainbow, says Ho (4).

The quantum coherence of organisms profoundly revolutionises our concept of health and disease. The healthy quantum coherent state is reflected in the complex dynamics of biological rhythms that are correlated like an exquisite symphony. Consequently, loss of coherence (disease) can be diagnosed with appropriate mathematical tools. The organism coordinates its activities by coherent electro-dynamical inter-communications, in which the quantum coherence of water plays a central role. That is why the organism is hypersensitive to weak electromagnetic fields and other subtle energy interventions.
Liquid crystalline matrix permeates throughout the connective tissues and into the interior of every single cell by microtubulis and cytoskeleton, as a communicative network, just like the nervous systems. The water molecules are aligned in ordered layers along the extensive surfaces of macromolecules and are an integral part of the liquid crystalline continuum. It makes the living matrix highly responsive to changes in pressure, temperature, pH, and electrical polarization. The ordered layers of water in the matrix also support a special kind of piezoelectric ‘jump conduction' of protons that is much faster than nerve conduction and faster than ordinary electrical conduction through wires.
The dynamically ordered layers of water molecules are associated with the oriented collagen fibres in the connective tissue and correspond to the acupuncture meridians, which are a low dielectric communication network system that also react on lowfrequency EM-waves in environment.

The observer
“Observations not only disturb what has to be measured, they produce it…. We compel [the electron] to assume a definite position…. We ourselves produce the results of measurements. ”Pascual Jordan.

With recent developments in physics, and phenomenon like ‘entanglement’ there is no longer reason not to include research of parapsychology into our scientific understanding of reality. Psi-effects must be understood as very weak effects similar to the observer-effects. But are Psi reality? Or are it an effect of the consciousness when we whish something or look at something. It is noticed that without a perceptional feedback there is no Psi either. Compare to biofeedback. "Is the moon there if nobody looks?"

The Computation
This strange behaviour of light can be perfectly described by considering probability amplitudes instead of probabilities, and probability amplitudes change when unobserved, indistinguishable alternatives become distinguishable. And this can lead to paradoxical situations such as quantum ‘seeing in the dark’, or getting information about something without light ever reaching it.

Probability amplitudes give probabilities when squared, and the rule for combining them was discovered by quantum physicist Richard Feynman. Feynman’s rule says that if an event can happen in two or more indistinguishable ways, the probability amplitude for that event is the ‘sum’ of the probability amplitudes for each way considered separately. The final probability of an event is then obtained by the sum of the squares of the two numbers describing the resultant probability amplitude. Feynman’s rule is Pythagora’s theorem: a2 + b2 = c2, which tells us how to obtain the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle from the lengths of the two sides. We learned that in elementary Euclidean geometry in school. It seems that Euclidean geometry enters fundamentally into quantum reality. But why should that be? "Nobody knows how it can be like that," said Feynman.

CP-violation, chirality, spinors and twistors, the EPR-paradox, Bells theorem and Gauss probability, hidden variable theory, are behind such phenomens as consistency, coherence, entanglement, correlation, and also consciousness, phase transitions. Also the time conception is changing. Time is a part of correlation too. Maybe we can change our history, at least our own. Time travel is not completely ruled out.

Quantum computing depends above all, on the coherent entangled state over time, or pure state that contains the superposition of multiple, even mutually exclusive alternatives. The more alternatives are entangled, the faster the quantum computing (braiding). It is the ability to ask many questions all at once, rather than one question at a time.

Quantum coherence is the basis of living organisation. The coherence of organisms is actively maintained, and extends, in the ideal, over all space-time scales. Could the organism be the model of the quantum computer that quantum physicists are trying to build? Could it be that proteins in the body fold to perfection in split seconds because the process involves quantum computing via infinitely many entangled states that encompass the entire body (5)?

Will a quantum hyper-computer take over the world? Will it simulate a human being so exactly that it is a hyper-intelligent human being? Well, if it starts to laugh at jokes I’d be worried. And if it can really simulate perfectly a human being, we better start setting a good example. Otherwise it has every chance of turning out to be a power-hungry despot intent on enslaving the whole world (6).

Erwin Schröedinger (1944), in What Is Life? introduced the idea of an "aperiodic crystal" that contained genetic information in its configuration of covalent chemical bonds. At that time DNA was not yet accepted as the carrier of hereditary information, which only was the case after the Hershey-Chase experiment of 1952. "How can the events in space and time which take place within the spatial boundary of a living organism be accounted for by physics and chemistry?’ He continues, ‘the preliminary answer which this little book will endeavor to expound and establish can be summarized as follows: the obvious inability of present-day physics and chemistry to account for such events is no reason at all for doubting that they can be accounted for by those scientists.’

Consciousness is quantum biology
How to incorporate altered states of consciousness within a new paradigm? This is a key problem for consciousness and quantum biology, says Rakovic and Dugic (7). It is the famous body/mind problem, that in all times has engaged the philosophers. The electromagnetic (EM) component of ultralowfrequency (ULF or ELF) "brainwaves" appears to enable perfect fitting with narrowed down limits of conscious capacity in normal awake states, and those frequencies are used as stabilizating and organizating agents. An additional low-dielectric, weakly ionized neural network ('quantum holographic neural network-like acupuncture system') is necessary in these processes.

Fig.2. (6) Generalized psycho-physiological model of the Self. Extreme states of consciousness are mostly related to the modified functionality of Perception block. Its output is changed by overloading senses, sensory deprivation or by changing its functionality (drug admission for example). Having in mind that during these states Action block exhibits rather altered output than its cessation, we can draw a conclusion that our model must have either internal generator or set of inputs that is not dependent on senses.

A comprehensive theory of consciousness must explain, not only self-awareness, intention, sensation, perception, memory, cognition, learning, creativity, curiosity, and altered states, but life per se, quantum entanglement, telepathy, precognition, energy healing, the evolution of species, and the homing behavior of pigeons and other animals. A theory that describes this polymorphous set is founded on the concept that all of its elements are products of holistic systems (8). Holistic systems are quantum systems and through its non-locality they organize Nature.

It would not be beyond the pale to suggest that our ‘consciousness’- think of it as our coherent quantum field - could become entangled with that of water, thereby influencing the structure of the water. Some 99% of all the molecules in our body are water in any case (9).

That is, a theory of consciousness is a general theory of organization and holistic systems. Quantum biology can't be kept apart from consciousness because it is the essence of life.

References (a few, more in the links in text)
1. Vilhelm Schjelderup 1974: Legekunsten på nye veier.
2. D.V. Nanopoulos’ Theory of brain function, quantum mechanics and superstrings. seminal paper.
3. Erwin Schröedinger 1944: What Is Life?
4. Mae-Wan Ho 2005: Acupuncture, Coherent Energy and Liquid Crystalline Meridians. Second International Congress on Acupuncture, 3-5 June 2005, Barcelona, Spain
5. Mae-Wan Ho 2001: Quantum Computer? Is It Alive?. ISIS Review -15 October 2001.
in: The Feynman Processor, Quantum Entanglement and The Computing Revolution, by Gerard J. Milburn, Perseus Books, Cambridge, Mass, 1998, ISBN 0-7382-0173-1. http://www.i-sis.org.uk/QuantumComputing.php
6. Emil Jovanov : On The Methodology Of EEG Analysis During Altered States Of Consciousness. http://www.vxm.com/21R.94.html
8. Watson E.D. et.al.(Donald E. Watson, Gary E. R. Schwartz, and Linda G. S. Russek) 2000: The Theory of Enformed Systems: A Paradigm of Organization and Holistic Systems. http://www.vxm.com/link.enformytheory.html
9. Mae Wan Ho http://www.i-sis.org.uk/water4.php

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