One of the main, still open, problems of today’s cosmology is that of the formation and evolution of gravitational structures. To this picture belongs the dark matter formations and the antimatter disappearance. If matter-antimatter formation has a base on four, or two pairs, then only one of those 'ends' = elemental particles would be visible, as discussed by Kea and Graham at galaxyzoo. Antimatter would then also be part of dark matter.

Quote:** News Release Number:** STScI-2010-37

## Detailed Dark Matter Map Yields Clues to Galaxy Cluster Growth

November 11, 2010: Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope received a boost from a cosmic magnifying glass to construct one of the sharpest maps of dark matter in the universe. They used Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys to chart the invisible matter in the massive galaxy cluster Abell 1689, located 2.2 billion light-years away. The cluster contains about 1,000 galaxies and trillions of stars. Dark matter is an invisible form of matter that accounts for most of the universe's mass. Hubble cannot see the dark matter directly. Astronomers inferred its location by analyzing the effect of gravitational lensing, where light from galaxies behind Abell 1689 is distorted by intervening matter within the cluster.

Researchers used the observed positions of 135 lensed images of 42 background galaxies to calculate the location and amount of dark matter in the cluster. They superimposed a map of these inferred dark matter concentrations, tinted blue, on a Hubble image of the cluster. The new dark matter observations may yield new insights into the role of dark energy in the universe's early formative years.

The cluster's gravity, the majority of which comes from dark matter, acts like a cosmic magnifying glass, bending and amplifying the light from distant galaxies behind it. This effect, called gravitational lensing, produces multiple, warped, and greatly magnified images of those galaxies, like the view in a funhouse mirror. By studying the distorted images, astronomers estimated the amount of dark matter within the cluster. If the cluster's gravity only came from the visible galaxies, the lensing distortions would be much weaker.Based on their higher-resolution mass map, Coe and his collaborators confirm previous results showing that the core of Abell 1689 is much denser in dark matter than expected for a cluster of its size, based on computer simulations of structure growth. Abell 1689 joins a handful of other well-studied clusters found to have similarly dense cores. The finding is surprising, because the push of dark energy early in the universe's history would have stunted the growth of all galaxy clusters.

"Galaxy clusters, therefore, would had to have started forming billions of years earlier in order to build up to the numbers we see today," Coe explains. "At earlier times, the universe was smaller and more densely packed with dark matter.Abell 1689 is among the most powerful gravitational lensing clusters ever observed. "The lensed images are like a big puzzle," Coe says. "Here we have figured out, for the first time, a way to arrange the mass of Abell 1689 such that it lenses all of these background galaxies to their observed positions."

We have finally `cracked the code' of gravitational lensing.

End of quote. Discussed by Sean Carroll here.

A fractal Universe?

Gravitational structure formation in scale relativity

In the framework of the theory of scale relativity, we suggest a solution to the cosmological problem of the formation and evolution of gravitational structures on many scales. This approach is based on the giving up of the hypothesis of differentiability of space-time coordinates. As a consequence of this generalization, space-time is not only curved, but also fractal. In analogy with Einstein's general relativistic methods, we describe the effects of space fractality on motion by the construction of a covariant derivative. The principle of equivalence allows us to write the equation of dynamics as a geodesics equation that takes the form of the equation of free Galilean motion. Then, after a change of variables, this equation can be integrated in terms of a gravitational Schrodinger equation that involves a new fundamental gravitational coupling constant, alpha_g = w0/c. Its solutions give probability densities that quantitatively describe precise morphologies in the position space and in the velocity space. Finally the theoretical predictions are successfully checked by a comparison with observational data: we find that matter is self-organized in accordance with the solutions of the gravitational Schrodinger equation on the basis of the universal constant w0 = 144.7±0.7 km/s (and its multiples and sub-multiples), from the scale of our Earth and the Solar System to large scale structures of the Universe .

A fractal universe, or a universe with many sub-manifolds, and light-cones. What would make it fractal? It must be the scaling mechanism.

As we shall see, this approach provides a solution for both the formation problem (this paper) and the anomalous effects (joint paper) without needing any additional unseen matter. Moreover, it allows one to understand the morphogenesis of several structures at all scales and to theoretically predict the existence of new relations and constraints, that are now successfully checked from an analysis of the astrophysical data.

And they write - this problem becomes formally equivalent to a scattering process during elastic collisions. Indeed, recall that the collision of particles is described in quantum mechanics in terms of an incoming free particle plane wave and of outcoming free plane and spherical waves.

So Universe scattering can be studied in a lab? In fact also the double spilt experiment can be seen as a fractalization of Universe in an holistic manner. Every scattering pattern is like the other in a topological way.

Nottale had a new preprint, Scale relativity and fractal space-time: theory and applications, in 2008 and in Foundations of science 2010, where he took also up implications for evolution and origin of Life. He writes as conclusion:

The theory of scale relativity relies on the postulate that the fundamental laws that govern the various physical, biological and other phenomenons find their origin in first principles. In continuity with previous theories of relativity, it considers that the most fundamental of these principles is the principle of relativity itself. The extraordinary success due to the application of this principle, since now four centuries, to position, orientation, motion (and therefore to gravitation) is well known. But, during the last decades, the various sciences have been faced to an ever increasing number of new unsolved problems, of which many are linked to questions of scales. It therefore seemed natural, in order to deal with these problems at a fundamental and first principle level, to extend theories of relativity by including the scale in the very definition of the coordinate system, then to account for these scale transformations in a relativistic way.A search on google on ' star cluster fractal' shows mainly two names, Nottale and Pitkänen. A search on arXive gives 5 more articles. Generalized quantum potentials in scale relativity, Journal-ref: J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 (2009), Quantum-like gravity waves and vortices in a classical fluid, Motion equations for relativistic particles in an external electromagnetic field in scale relativity proceedings of the Rencontres TRANS-ERI-COD 2009, The Evolution and Development of the Universe , Special Issue of the First International Conference on the Evolution and Development of the Universe (EDU 2008), and Electromagnetic Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations in scale relativity, International Journal of Modern Physics A 25, (2010) 4239-4253 .

We have attempted to give in this article a summarized discussion of the various developments of the theory and of its applications. The aim of this theory is to describe space-time as a continuous manifold without making the hypothesis of differentiability, and to physically constrain its possible geometry by the principle of relativity, both of motion and of scale. This is effectively made by using the physical principles that directly derive from it, namely, the covariance, equivalence and geodesic principles. These principles lead in their turn to the construction of covariant derivatives, and finally to the writing, in terms of these covariant derivatives, of the motion equations under the form of free-like geodesic equations. Such an attempt is therefore a natural extension of general relativity, since the two-times differentiable continuous manifolds of Einstein’s theory, that are constrained by the principle of relativity of motion, are particular sub-cases of the new geometry in construction.

Now, giving up the differentiability hypothesis involves an extremely large number of new possible structures to be investigated and described.

Such an approach is rendered possible by the result according to which the small scale structure which manifest the nondifferentiability are smoothed out beyond some relative transitions toward the large scales. One therefore recovers the standard classical differentiable theory as a large scale approximation of this generalized approach. But one also obtains a new geometric theory which allows one to understand quantum mechanics as a manifestation of an underlying nondifferentiable and fractal geometry, and finally to suggest generalizations of it and new domains of application for these generalizations. Now the difficulty with theories of relativity is that they are meta-theories rather than theories of some particular systems.

We present a new step in the foundation of quantum field theory with the tools of scale relativity. However, if one first applies the quantum covariance, then implements the scale covariance through the scale-covariant derivative, one obtains the electromagnetic Dirac equation in its usual form. This method can also be applied successfully to the derivation of the electromagnetic Klein-Gordon equation. This suggests it rests on more profound roots of the theory, since it encompasses naturally the spin-charge coupling.Even this mysterious observation may get its explanation. GIANT GAMMA-RAY BUBBLES: AGN ACTIVITY OR BIPOLAR GALACTIC WIND? We saw the picture in Nottales works. Magnetic perturbation. Or a giant hurricane in the center of Milky Way, the HAARP of our galaxy? NASA's Fermi Telescope Finds Giant Structure in our Galaxy.

NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has unveiled a previously unseen structure centered in the Milky Way. The feature spans 50,000 light-years and may be the remnant of an eruption from a supersized black hole at the center of our galaxy.

"What we see are two gamma-ray-emitting bubbles that extend 25,000 light-years north and south of the galactic center," said Doug Finkbeiner, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., who first recognized the feature. "We don't fully understand their nature or origin." They are not dark matter, anyway.

Also at LHC there are today for the first time seen the 4 muon particle pairs, or dimuon pairs, but they show no complete symmetry. The CMS collaboration and its discussion.

Matti writes about dark matter in 'Tau-pions again but now in galactic center' :

SvaraRaderahttp://matpitka.blogspot.com/2010/10/tau-pions-again-but-now-in-galactic.html

The standard view about dark matter is that it has only gravitatitonal interactions with ordinary matter so that high densities of dark matter are required to detect its signatures.

On the average the density of dark matter is about 80 per cent of ordinary matter. Clearly, Milky Way's center is an excellent place for detecting the signatures of dark matter. The annihilation of pairs of dark matter particles to gamma rays is one possible signature and one could study the anomalous features of gamma ray spectrum from the galactic center(a region with radius about 100 light years).Europe's INTEGRAL satellite launched in 2002 indeed found bright gamma ray radiations coming from the center of galaxy with energy of .511 MeV, which is slightly above electron mass (see the references below). The official interpretation is that the gammas are produced in the annihilations of particles of positrons and electrons in turn created in dark matter annihilations. TGD suggests much simpler mechanism. Gamma rays would be produced in the decay of what I call electropions having mass which is slightly larger than m=2me.

The news of the day (http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn19655-hints-of-lightweight-dark-matter-particle-found-in-space.html)

was that the data from Fermi Gamma Ray telescope give analyzed by Dan Hooper and Lisa Goodenough

http://arxiv.org/abs/1010.2752

gives evidence for a dark matter candidate with mass between 7.3-9.2 GeV decaying predominantly into a pair of τ leptons. The estimate for the mass region is roughly 4 times τ mass. What puts bells ringing that a mass of a charged lepton appears again!

Therefore the interpretation as decay products of tau-pions seems to make sense!

I am suggesting that there may come a time when physics will be willing to learn from biology as biology has been willing to learn from physics, a time when physics will accept the endless diversity of nature as one of its central themes, just as biology has accepted the unity of the genetic coding apparatus as one of its central dogmas. - Freeman Dyson, Infinite in All Directions, 1988, Harper, p 47.

SvaraRaderaFrom http://evodevouniverse.com/wiki/Main_Page

A great site.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.79.015014 arXive 1550-7998

SvaraRaderahttp://prd.aps.org/abstract/PRD/v79/i1/e015014

A theory of dark matter by Nima Arkani-Hamed et collaborators, 2009.

If the force carrier is a non-Abelian gauge boson, the dark matter is part of a multiplet of states, and splittings between these states are naturally generated with size alpha m_phi about MeV, leading to the eXciting dark matter (XDM) scenario previously proposed to explain the positron annihilation in the galactic center observed by the INTEGRAL satellite; the light boson invoked by XDM to mediate a large inelastic scattering cross section is identified with the phi here.

Thanks for a fascinating view including discussion of the gravitational Schrodinger equation. GT integral atomic function modeling is one approach. Research progress depends on the data density of the atomic topological function used to analyze the structural details of galactic mass, electrons, waves, energy, and force fields. Recent advancements in quantum string science have produced the picoyoctometric (10^-36 m), 3D, interactive video atomic model imaging function, in terms of chronons and spacons for exact, quantized, relativistic mechanics. This format returns clear numerical data for a full spectrum of variables. The atom's RQT (relative quantum topological) data point mapping function is built by combination of the relativistic Einstein-Lorenz transform functions for time, mass, and energy with the workon quantized electromagnetic wave equations for frequency and wavelength.

SvaraRaderaThe atom psi (Z) pulsates at the frequency {Nhu=e/h} by cycles of {e=m(c^2)} transformation of nuclear surface mass to string forcons with joule values, followed by nuclear force absorption. This radiation process is limited only by timespace boundaries of {Gravity-Time}, where gravity is the force binding space to psi, forming the GT integral atomic wavefunction. The expression is defined as the differential series expansion of nuclear output rates with quantum symmetry numbers assigned along the progression to give topology to the solutions.

Next, the correlation function for the manifold of internal heat capacity energy particle 3D string-structural functions is extracted by rearranging the total internal momentum function to the photon gain rule and integrating it for GT limits. This produces a series of 26 topological waveparticle functions of the five classes; {+Positron, Workon, Thermon, -Electromagneton, Magnemedon}, accounting for each energy intermedon of the 5/2 kT J internal energy cloud.

Those 26 energy data values intersect the sizes of the fundamental physical constants: h, h-bar, S.B. delta, nuclear magneton, beta magneton, k (series), 5/2 k, 3/2k. They quantize atomic dynamics by acting as fulcrum particles. The result is the TCD-CRQT exact picoyoctometric, 3D, interactive video atomic model function, responsive to software application keyboard input of virtual photon gain events by shifts of electron, force, and energy field states and positions. This system also gives a new equation for the magnetic flux variable B, which appears as a waveparticle of varying frequency.

Images of the h-bar magnetic energy waveparticle of ~175 picoyoctometers, and the workon, h, are found online at http://www.symmecon.com/GUPPP.docx. TCD-CRQT conforms to the unopposed motion of disclosure in U.S. District (NM) Court, 04/02/2001, The Solution to the Equation of Schrodinger.

(C) 2010, Dale B. Ritter, B.A.

Thanks for your comment. I am though a simpleminded biologist and all those -ons make me suspicious. First I have to get the answer why they are necessary, before I start looking at them.

SvaraRaderaI think the works of Zeilinger group is one essential bit of information. What is the unseen part of his molecules about? Superpositions? Are there any other solution?

http://202.141.40.218/wiki/index.php/Spectrum_of_Atomic_Hydrogen In 1947 Willis Lamb and Robert Retherford discovered experimentally that two levels of hydrogen atom in the first excited state, predicted to have same energy (degenerate) on the basis of Dirac’s theory, which is not exact (muonic hydrogen).

One fascinating bit of information is also seen in the multi-electron Rydberg constant, http://wn.com/Rydberg_constant. The Shell Model (Bohr-Sommerfeld Model) and Multi-electron Atoms Quantum Model.

Something essential bout Bohr model, maybe forgotten, (wikipedia): These orbits are associated with definite energies [quantized] and are also called energy shells or energy levels. Thus, the electrons do not continuously lose energy as they travel in a particular orbit. They can only gain and lose energy by jumping from one allowed orbit to another, absorbing or emitting electromagnetic radiation with a frequency ν determined by the energy difference of the levels according to the Planck relation.

the laws of classical mechanics apply to the motion of the electron about the nucleus only when restricted by a quantum rule.

where n = 1, 2, 3, ... is called the principal quantum number, and ħ = h/2π. The lowest value of n is 1; this gives a smallest possible orbital radius of 0.0529 nm known as the Bohr radius. Once an electron is in this lowest orbit, it can get no closer to the proton. Starting from the angular momentum quantum rule Bohr[2] was able to calculate the energies of the allowed orbits of the hydrogen atom. Bohr's condition, that the angular momentum is an integer multiple of ħ was later reinterpreted by de Broglie as a standing wave condition: the electron is described by a wave and a whole number of wavelengths must fit along the circumference of the electron's orbit. The angular momentum L = m_e vr (is an integer multiple of ħ) = n \ħ

The actual energy levels cannot be solved analytically for more than one electron (n-body problem) because the electrons are not only affected by the nucleus but also interact with each other via the Coulomb Force.

Gives Rydberg's constant in terms of more fundamental constants of nature, including the electron's charge and Planck's constant.

Problems with the larger atoms, magnetism, fine structure constant, the uncertainy principle. How is the physics changed in bigger atoms? Maybe this model tells the truth and the error is exactly in these areas?

Perturbation is another problematic thing. At higher-order perturbations, however, the Bohr model and quantum mechanics differ, QM is the right one?

http://massey.dur.ac.uk/resources/mgbason/Bason_Thesis.pdf

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v458/n7241/full/nature07945.html fig 1. Observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules.

My approach is much TGD:ish. The 'Dark World' need not necessary -ions? It can be much simpler?

To Dale Ritter.

SvaraRaderaI have looked at your GUT, but it goes beyond my scope of understanding. It seems to be much about patterns and numerology, but also so many strange words I don't know of, and I don't think I have time to learn. Looks interesting though.