onsdag 20 januari 2010

Spirals, very small and very big

I must write about some coincidences, that look rather peculiar - vortices.
First in a very small scale, then in a big scale. It reminds me of microcosmos and macrocosmos, and the holographic principle.

First in microscale, bacteria.
Swimming Bacteria Stir Up Fluid, from American Physics News Graphics, 2004.

The above picture shows a bacteria-induced fluid convection pattern in a half-inch-diameter fluid drop, viewed from above

The above picture shows the vector field of bacterial velocities at the bottom of a drop hanging from the bottom of a petri dish, at high magnification, with prominent regions of circulation evident.

(Images and captions courtesy Raymond Goldstein and colleagues, University of Arizona.)Reported by: Dombrowski et al., Physical Review Letters.

Spiral Waves Break Hearts

Cardiac cells, when grown as a sheet of tissue, often exhibit spiral waves of electrical activity after two days in culture (see movie). Such spiral waves, which have been associated with abnormal rhythms in human hearts, may be a precursor to fatal cardiac rhythms such as ventricular fibrillation.

As the coupling in a heterogeneous excitable medium is reduced, three different types of behavior are encountered: plane waves propagate without breaking up, plane waves break up into spiral waves, and plane waves block. Blocking communication between the cardiac cells with a drug called heptanol (an agent that reduces the electrical coupling between cells) causes the spiral waves to break up into even more troublesome smaller spirals. Spiral wave breakup is believed to be a cause of ventricular fibrillation in human hearts(see movie).

A simulation closely reproduces the results of the above heptanol experiment. The model consists of cells irregularly distributed in space which are coupled to neighboring cells depending on their distance from each other. Shows the effect of reducing the size of the neighborhood of cell-cell interaction. For large neighborhoods, the wavefront is smooth. For small neighborhoods, the wavefront breaks into many small spiral waves.

Additional information at Gil Bub's website. With movies.

Reported by: Gil Bub, Alvin Shrier, and Leon Glass, Physical Review Letters, 4 Feb 2002.

A lengthy description of spirals in Gil Bub's thesis. Regrettably he uses the HH-model for the nerve pulse. A soliton-model should give a better picture.

Our Milky way is also a big spiral. But here I take an example in hurricanes. The question has always been, what is in the eye? In Milky Way a gigantic black hole? In a hurricane's eye is calmy weather. Why? Something like a black hole?

Hurricanes and tornadoes.
Then i saw a good video of a hurricane. New NASA research is providing clues about how air within and around the eye provides energy to help fuel the storm. This video combines simulation and observational data to illustrate the phenomenon.
The term hurricane is derived from Huracan, the name of a Mayan storm god. Over its lifetime, one of these massive storms can release as much energy as a million Hiroshima nuclear bombs.

Far enough from the equator - typically at latitudes of more than 10° - the Coriolis force associated with the rotation of the Earth sets the massive weather system spinning, with winds spiralling in towards the centre. Hurricanes can also contain very tall clouds called hot towers that stretch up to the ceiling of the troposphere. Hurricanes can continue to grow in size and ferocity as long as they are over warm waters.

NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio
Hurricane Hot Towers

Hot towers achieve a fast movement of the air upwards. And the eye is not totally round and centred. That will do the difference. Definitely worth to see.

In the eyewall, warm air spirals upward, creating the hurricane's strongest winds. The speed of the winds in the eyewall is related to the diameter of the eye. Just as ice skaters spin faster when they pull their arms in, a hurricane's winds blow faster if its eye is small. If the eye widens, the winds decrease.

There is something with the tornados and the hurricanes, something with the energy I don't understand. Superconductionlike or solitonic? Let's look at Wikipedia.

The most intense of all atmospheric phenomena, tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes but are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust. For a vortex to be classified as a tornado, it must be in contact with both the ground and the cloud base. The winds of the tornado vortex and of constituent turbulent eddies, as well as airflow interaction with the surface and debris, contribute to the sounds. Funnel clouds also produce sounds. Funnel clouds and small tornadoes are reported as whistling, whining, humming, or the buzzing of innumerable bees or electricity, or more or less harmonic, whereas many tornadoes are reported as a continuous, deep rumbling, or an irregular sound of "noise".

Since many tornadoes are audible only in very close proximity, sound is not reliable warning of a tornado. And, any strong, damaging wind, even a severe hail volley or continuous thunder in a thunderstorm may produce a roaring sound. Tornadoes also produce identifiable inaudible infrasonic signatures and a detectable seismic signature.Tornadoes emit on the electromagnetic spectrum, with sferics and E-field effects. Lightning activity often decreases as a tornado reaches the surface. Electromagnetics and lightning have little or nothing to do directly with what drives tornadoes (tornadoes are basically a thermodynamic phenomenon), although there are likely connections with the storm and environment affecting both phenomena.

Fair weather waterspouts are less severe but far more common, and are similar to dust devils and landspouts.

What about the black hole?
A black hole is born when an object becomes unable to withstand the compressing force of its own gravity. Many objects (including our Earth and Sun) will never become black holes. Their gravity is not sufficient to overpower the atomic and nuclear forces of their interiors, which resist compression. But in more massive objects, gravity ultimately wins.

Stellar-mass black holes are born with a bang. They form when a very massive star (at least 25 times heavier than our Sun) runs out of nuclear fuel. The star then explodes as a supernova. What remains is a black hole, usually only a few times heavier than our Sun since the explosion has blown much of the stellar material away. - Oh, so many unclear things. Nuclear fuel is elemental particles. Dark matter is not the same at the center and outwards. Is it the dark matter that runs out?

The problem is that we don't know what gravity is. Can it be compared to pressure, as in low pressure weather forming hurricanes?

In supersymmetry, every fermion has a so-called "superpartner" which is a boson, and every boson has a fermion superpartner. Supersymmetry may also be able to explain the nature of dark matter. Finding the Higgs boson will be seen as a priority for the new LHC and Atlas, because it is fundamental to a complete understanding of matter. The theory is that all particles acquire their mass through interactions with an all-pervading field, called the Higgs field, which is carried by the Higgs boson. Some physicists have made an even more startling prediction about the LHC: that it is energetic enough to create mini-black holes. Mini-black holes are being created around us anyway.

Gas that falls into a black hole settles into a so-called accretion disk. Friction and magnetic fields in the disk cause the gas to heat and emit X-rays. Supermassive black holes can grow by consuming gas and dust from disks, as from a disk of dust and gas in the galaxy NGC 7052.

Magnetic fields near a spinning black hole can propel electrons outward in a jet along the rotation axis. The electrons produce bright radio waves.

Looking almost 11 billion years into the past, astronomers have measured the motions of stars for the first time in a very distant galaxy. They are whirling at a speed of one million miles per hour—about twice the speed of our Sun through the Milky Way. Even stranger, the galaxies are a fraction the size of our Milky Way, and so may have evolved over billions of years into the full-grown galaxies seen around us today. How galaxies grew so much in the past 10 billion years is an active area of research, and understanding the dynamics in these young compact galaxies is a key piece of evidence in eventually solving this puzzle.

There is a theory explaining this, TGD. And look at how a tornado get more speed, by narrowing the circular diameter.

The same function is probably also behind our receptors. Think of them as mini black holes :-) That is quantum biology.

7 kommentarer:

  1. Huij... önskar mitt huvud räckte till för att förstå och hänga med!

  2. Spiraler finns ju överallt, också i kroppen, som du ju vet. Det var när jag fick se bilden av bakteriens framfart som det klickade till. Bakteriens rörelser har varit omdebatterade, oförklarade, men den kanske använder samma typ av vågor som vi - kalciumvågor.

    En baktanke var kopplingen till tornados och annat större. Kanske också de i grunden är en sorts likadan funktion. Uppgift: att flytta på energier/massor, eller entropier. Supraledande kanaler bildas. Därför transporteras materien utåt, bort från oss, med en hastighet större än ljusets?

    Dessutom finns det en liknelse mellan stor och liten galax. universum växer, och tills nu har man sagt att det är bara rymden mellan planeterna och galaxerna som växer. Trots att orsaken till tillväxten skulle vara mörk materia som finns fångad inuti atomer, och hoppar fram och tillbaka mellan varande och icke-varande också innanför dig och mig. Så det låter ju inte riktigt trovärdigt att inte också galaxerna skulle växa med tiden. Och jorden likaså, atomerna. Men tillväxten sker troligen inte jämnt, utan också den följer spänningsskillnader. Nås tröskelvärdet sker en utvidgning. Se teorin om Expanding Earth.

    Nu har det också kommit en ny teori om gravitationen som följer det här. gravitationen skulle vara kopplad till spänningsskillnader/entropi.

    Kanske alla spiraler är likadana. Som där uppe, så här nere, sa man förr :) Det lilla följer det stora. Man kan härleda funktionerna ur analoga källor?

  3. Here is some new information about the tornadoes. From 1. mars.2010.


    There are two airstreams. Also the supercells are more exact. The tornado is pulsating etc.

  4. Also thunderstorms creates gamma rays.

    In the early 1990s a rare type of lightning event was discovered that can produce extremely bright, energetic gamma rays – known as terrestrial gamma ray flashes.

    The AGILE team led by Marco Tavani gathered data collected from 130 terrestrial gamma ray flash events occurring in the past two and a half years. Reporting its findings in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Tavini's team noted radiation emerging in all directions from the upper atmosphere, covering a wide range of energies. In some cases gamma rays were up to 100 MeV – more than twice as energetic as previous measurements.

    100 MeV is even impressive coming from big explosions on the Sun, not to talk about thunder in our upper atmosphere.

    It requires large potential differences to be established within thunderclouds. This can transform the clouds into particle accelerators where electrons can be rapidly accelerated, producing an avalanche of particles as they liberate more electrons along the way. These "runaway electrons" are believed to be the source of gamma rays, and they may be involved in producing the initial spark for bolts of lightning.

    Plasmoids? Ball lightnings?
    Human perceptions?

    But that sounds not as a truth. If several people can see the same thing at once, and it annihilates the humans, not ordinary matter? So it is something with antimatter-creation (also in humans)? Some common base is needed for the interference.

    We know so very little yet. Maybe plasmoids can be created at LHC?

    Natural accelerators. http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/42368

    Martin Füllekrug of Bath University described how the team detected radio waves coinciding with the appearance of "sprites" – glowing orbs that occasionally flicker into existence above thunderstorms. The radio waves suggest the sprites can accelerate nearby electrons, creating a beam with the same power as a small nuclear power plant.

    Charles Wilson investigated the effects of a thundercloud's electric field. Wilson claimed that the electric field would cause an electrical breakdown of the Earth's atmosphere above the cloud, leading to transient phenomena such as sprites. Robert Roussel-Dupré predicted they would come in pulses with a fairly flat spectrum – contrary to the electromagnetic spectrum of the lightning itself.

    As highly energetic particles or "cosmic rays" from space bombard our atmosphere, they strip air molecules of their outer electrons. In the presence of a sprite's electric field, these electrons could be forced upward in a narrow beam from the troposphere to near-Earth space. Moreover, the changing electron current would, via Maxwell's equations, produce electromagnetic waves in the radio-frequency range.

    a fascinating example of the interaction between the Earth and the wider universe.

  5. If you want to know about the theory of electromagnetics knots, and it's relation to ball lightning (a question not related to the possible cosmic source of ordinary lightning) you can read, for example, here:



    is supported simply by 511 keV photons observer by the telescope. They come from annihilating electron-positron pairs. An explanation could be pretty dramatic: a property of the electric fields driving the thunderstorms could have been reversed! A natural LHC? http://motls.blogspot.com/2009/11/fermi-lightnings-produce-positrons.html



    It is estimated that about 500 TGFs occur daily worldwide, but most go undetected. TGFs produce high-energy electrons and positrons. Moving near the speed of light, these particles travel into space along Earth's magnetic field. Interactions with matter can produce gamma rays and vice versa. So-called "bremsstrahlung" gamma rays result when high-energy electrons traveling close to the speed of light become deflected by passing near an atom or molecule. In pair production, a gamma ray passing through the electron shell of an atom transforms into two particles: an electron and its antimatter opposite, a positron. Scientists long have suspected TGFs arise from the strong electric fields near the tops of thunderstorms. Under the right conditions, they say, the field becomes strong enough that it drives an upward avalanche of electrons. Reaching speeds nearly as fast as light, the high-energy electrons give off gamma rays when they're deflected by air molecules. Normally, these gamma rays are detected as a TGF.

    But the cascading electrons produce so many gamma rays that they blast electrons and positrons clear out of the atmosphere. This happens when the gamma-ray energy transforms into a pair of particles. The detection of positrons shows many high-energy particles are being ejected from the atmosphere. In fact, scientists now think that all TGFs emit electron/positron beams. A paper on the findings has been accepted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters.

    On Dec. 14, 2009, while NASA's Fermi flew over Egypt, the spacecraft intercepted a particle beam from a terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF) that occurred over its horizon. Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor detected the signal of positrons annihilating on the spacecraft -- not once, but twice. After passing Fermi, some of the particles reflected off of a magnetic "mirror" point and returned.


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